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Vol. 9. Issue 1.
Pages 1104-1118 (January - February 2020)
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Vol. 9. Issue 1.
Pages 1104-1118 (January - February 2020)
Review Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.12.023
Open Access
The effect of the double-action pressure on the physical, mechanical and tribology properties of Mg-WO3 nanocomposites
Kaveh Rahmania,
Corresponding author
, Ali Sadooghib, Mohammad Nokhberoostac
a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174, Iran
b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
c Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kar Higher Education Institute of Qazvin 3431849689, Iran
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Figures (18)
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Tables (4)
Table 1. The density results of produced samples.
Table 2. The result of Vickers microhardness.
Table 3. The result of wear test.
Table 4. The result of compressive strength.
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Due to the lightness, Magnesium is one of the most applied metals in the automotive and aerospace industries. Mechanical and tribology properties of Mg and its alloys can be enhanced through the addition of reinforcement materials. In this study, the effect of double-action compaction was investigated on the relative density, hardness, compressive strength and wear behavior, of Mg-based nanocomposite reinforced with the different volume fraction of WO3 nanoparticle. The nanocomposite powders were double-action compacted at different pressures including (300, 500, 700 MPa) and then sintered in a furnace under argon gas at 450 °C for 1 h. Specimens with a relative density above 90% were produced through this method. Relative density increased with increasing pressure in all samples. Also, the highest relative density of the compressed Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3 sample at 700 MPa pressure was about 4.14% higher than that of the compressed same sample at pressure (300 MPa). The highest hardness was obtained for Mg-5 vol.% WO3, which is 29% more than pure Mg. In addition, the compressive strength of Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3 nanocomposite was about 45% higher than that of the pure Mg. An Improvement in strength was obtained due to strengthening mechanisms such as the Orowan mechanism and an increase in dislocation density due to the thermal mismatch phenomenon created duration compaction. Moreover, the lowest wear rate for Mg-5 vol.% WO3 nanocomposite was 3.82 (10−6 × cm3/N.m) which was 67% higher than pure Mg. The SEM analysis of worn surfaces of the specimens showed that the adhesion, abrasive, and delamination were the dominant wear mechanisms.

Double-action compaction
Mechanical properties
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Mg and its alloys are one of the lightest metals with a high strength to weight ratio [1]. Due to its low mechanical properties and strength, Mg cannot be used in special parts alone [2,3]. For this reason, Mg-based composites and nanocomposites have been developed to address this problem [4].

There are several methods, including powder metallurgy [5,6], high-pressure coupling with conventional sintering [7], laser melting [8,9], in situ [10,11], a novel hydrothermal reaction [12], a surfactant-free hydrothermal reaction [13], sol-gel technique [14], a novel facile precipitation route [15] and ultrasonic cavitation [16] are used for nanocomposite production. Manufacturing nanocomposites through the powder metallurgy method has many advantages compared to other methods such as low production temperature which reduces surface reactions and minimizes adverse reactions between the matrix and reinforcing materials and the relatively uniform distribution of the reinforcing material in the matrix material [17]. The powder metallurgy method allows better control over the distribution of reinforcing nanoparticles in the matrix material and the production of materials with desirable mechanical properties, which has made this method more popular than other methods [18]. Powder-based metallurgical methods with quasi-static compaction can be either single or double-action pressings in cold or hot conditions.

Rahmani et al. [19] investigated the percentage of nanoparticles and the compaction temperature on the properties of Mg-based nanocomposites reinforced with nanoparticles made by the single-action hot pressing method. The results show that the relative density of the samples decreased with increasing nanoparticles percentage, while there was an increase in the microhardness and compressive strength of the samples. In addition, increasing the compaction temperature increases the density and decreases the hardness of the samples [20]. Moreover, the results of the dynamic and quasi-static pressure tests showed that the nanocomposite samples produced at high strain rates had better properties so that the dynamic strength was 55% higher than the quasi-static strength. Majzoobi et al. [21] also investigated the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of Mg-based nanocomposites and the results showed that with increasing temperature, the samples obtained a higher relative density and hardness.

In line with the research on compression with double-action compaction, it is worth mentioning. Wanquan et al. [22] research which investigated the distribution of density uniformity and the influence of density on Matrix frictional materials Aluminum Bronze specimens made by single and double-action compaction. The results showed that the density of samples produced by double-action compaction was higher than the density of samples produced by single-action compaction. Li et al. [23] investigated numerically the double-action density of Fe-Al composite reinforced with 20% Al produced by the multi-particle finite element method (MPFEM). In their studies, they showed that in double-action compaction mode, the particle arrangement was more noticeable than in the single-action compaction mode and fewer voids were observed in the samples. Bonaccrosi et al. [24] examined the physical and mechanical properties of Al-TiH2 composite produced by single and double-action compaction. The results showed that there was an improvement in the properties of double-action compaction as well as the effect of friction and lubrication of the mold during compaction. In addition to the researches mentioned, Wang et al. [25] study numerically and experimentally investigated the compaction mechanism of consolidation Cu-Al mixed powders with double and single-action compaction and compared their compaction in these two modes.

In this paper, the effect of double-action compaction pressure is investigated as well as WO3 reinforcing nanoparticles on the physical and mechanical properties of pure Mg. First, Mg powder was mixed with reinforcing nanoparticles with different volume fraction (0, 1.5, 3, 5%) in a planetary mill for 1 h, then the nanocomposite powders were compacted through the powder metallurgy method at different pressures (300, 500, 700 MPa) in a double-action cold press state. After compaction, the specimens were sintered in an argon gas furnace for 1 h. The density, relative density, microhardness, wear properties and compressive strength of the specimens were evaluated to deduce the results. SEM images were also presented to investigate the microstructural and wear behavior of the specimens. It should be noted that most research in the field of double-action compaction is numerical and less experimental research has been reported. This research has focused on this issue.

2Materials, devices, and tests

For the production of nanocomposites, pure Mg powder with 63 micron granulation and 99% purity with irregular spherical morphology as the matrix material and WO3 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 45 nm with 99.9% purity with spherical morphology were used as reinforcement. Mg Powder was mixed with varying percentages (0, 1.5, 3, 5%) of WO3 nanoparticles in an MPM4-250H model planetary mill at a speed of 100 rpm and a ratio of balls to powder of 20:1 for 1 h under gas argon. The mixed nanocomposite powders are poured in the die as shown in Fig. 1(a,b) and cold-pressed under a double-action compaction machine at pressures of 300, 500, 700 MPa. Also, Fig. 1(c,d) shows the produced sample and a sample for metallographic imaging. Finally, cylindrical specimens with 20 mm diameter and 9 mm height were produced.

Fig. 1.

The schematic of used mold for compressing (a), designed and built mold for producing (b), produced sample (c), metallography sample (d).


The sintering of the samples was performed in a CARABOLITE tube furnace for 1 h at 450 °C in an argon gas atmosphere. The sintering process is a creation or strengthens bonding between the particles due to the high-temperature melting of the metal, which can be done at a lower temperature compared to the melting point by atomic transfer in the solid-state. At the microstructural scale, this bonding is established due to neck formation at the grain contact surfaces. Fig. 2 shows the process of formation and neck formation between metal particles. Usually, as the particle size decreases, the specific surface area (surface-to-volume ratio) increases and therefore, the sintering process is performed rapidly. In the nanocomposites with a reinforcing phase consisting of ceramics, it is expected that the ceramic particles will delay the sintering process. Arokiassami et al. [26] examined the sintering of quasi-static densified samples at different pressures and temperatures. The highest final density and hardness were obtained when the compression pressure increase and the sintering temperature decreased as well as the heating rate in the furnace.

Fig. 2.

Formation and growth of neck between spherical particle surfaces in the sintering process [27].


To calculate the theoretical density of the samples, the law of Rule of Mixture given in Eq. (1) was used [28]. Experimental density measurements of the produced nanocomposites were performed according to ASTM B962 standard using Archimedes' Principle, and the dry weight, saturation weight (after 48 h’ immersion in water) and immersion weight of the samples were calculated [29]. According to the experimental density and the obtained theory, the relative density and porosity percentage of each sample were calculated using Eqs. (2) and (3).

The hardness of the specimens was measured by the Vickers hardness test machine with 100gr force for 15S according to ASTM-E384 standard [30]. A pressure test was performed on the universal machine with a strain rate of 0.008 s−1 with ASTM E9-19 standard [31]. The pin-on-disk wear test was performed according to the ASTM-G99 standard with 10 N force at a distance of 200 m with a pin speed of 0.033 m/s [32]. SEM images were prepared to investigate the microstructure and worn surfaces of the specimens [33,34]. XRD of the compacted specimens was performed to study the structural evolution of the powders after mechanical milling and during compaction [35,36]. Infrared spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer (Vertex 70, Bruker scientific instruments) to identify the chemical structure and bond analysis of the samples [37,38].

3Results and discussion3.1Microstructure

The SEM images of the matrix and reinforcing powders were taken to ensure their quality, morphology, and size, as seen in Fig. 3. As shown in the figure, the size of some nanoparticles powders has been calculated by the device and they are all nanosized with an average size of 45 nm.

Fig. 3.

SEM photo of Pure Mg (a), WO3 nanoparticle (b).


Fig. 4 illustrates the XRD patterns of 1 h ball milled Mg–3vol.% WO3 nanocomposite powder. It is clear that no new phases produced after ball milling of the mixture, mainly due to the short duration of the milling.

Fig. 4.

Illustrates the XRD patterns of 1 h ball milled Mg–3 vol.%WO3 nanocomposite powder. It is clear that no new phases produced after ball milling of the mixture, mainly due to the short duration of the milling.


The SEM images of the nanocomposites reinforced with WO3 nanoparticles compacted at 700 MPa pressure with double-action compaction at different magnifications are shown in Fig. 5. The white lines in the images represent the nanoparticles that are located between the Mg particles. The aggregation of the nanoparticles due to their agglomeration in the samples is visible as white dots, which are also marked with red circles in Fig. 5. As the percentage of nanoparticles increased, the agglomeration rate increased as well due to the strong Van der Waals force between the nanoparticles that tend to agglomeration, which in turn decreases the relative density in the samples [29].

Fig. 5.

SEM photo of produced nanocomposite samples at 700 MPa pressure.


Fig. 6 shows the XRD patterns of compacted Mg–3 vol.% WO3 nanocomposite. The figure shows that interaction phases have not been created after dynamic compaction even at high temperatures.

Fig. 6.

XRD pattern of compacted Mg–3 vol.% WO3 nanocomposite.

3.2Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

In order to find the chemical composition of the particles, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was performed [39,40]. Fig. 7(a) shows the SEM micrograph of WO3 nanoparticles settled at the boundary of two adjacent Mg particles that the EDS point analysis can be seen in Fig. 7(b). The EDS point analysis depicted in Fig. 7(c) also confirms that the particles at the boundary are WO3. The atomic weight percentage of the sample is shown in the inset of Fig. 7. These hard and stiff nanoparticles lead to the creation of a specimen with some porosity and restrain a perfect bonding between the micrometer-sized Mg particles.

Fig. 7.

EDS point analysis of the region around the WO3 particle is shown by letter A and B in the SEM image belonged to Mg–3 vol.% WO3 nanocomposite (a), the EDS results of point A (b), the EDS results of point B (c).

3.3Energy dispersive photoelectron spectroscopy

The Energy Dispersive Photoelectron Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to study the composition of the particles present in the sample. EDS spectrum of Mg-WO3 nanocomposite involved Mg (K), tungsten (LA) and oxygen (KA) only and other impurities were not recognised. All of them are shown in Fig. 8, that confirms the existence of peaks corresponding to W, O and Mg atoms. Additionally, elemental mapping is done to confirm the formation of Mg-WO3 nanocomposite and the uniform distribution of WO3 in the Mg matrix that can be seen in Fig. 9.

Fig. 8.

The EDS spectra of Mg-WO3 nanocomposite.

Fig. 9.

Elemental mapping of the Mg-WO3 nanocomposite showing the uniform distribution of oxygen and tungsten in Mg matrix.

3.4FTIR spectroscopy

Infrared spectra were done by a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer (Vertex 70, Bruker scientific instruments) to identify the chemical structure of the samples. FT-IR spectrum showed the bonds between Mg and WO3 particles in the specimen.

FTIR spectrum of Mg, WO3, and Mg-WO3 nanocomposite are shown in Fig. 10 in the 400–4000 cm−1 region. It is obvious in Fig. 10(a); any infrared adsorptions were not recognized due to the not presence of any chemical combination in the pure magnesium. In Fig. 10(b), the broad absorption peaks at less than 1000cm-1 indicates the presence of pure WO3. The peaks at 824 and 774 cm−1 are assigned the stretching vibration modes of OWO bonds. On the other hand, the FT-IR spectrum of Mg-WO3 nanocomposite in Fig. 10(c) shows, the peaks observed at 752 cm−1 due to OWO stretching vibrations but they are not observed in the spectrum of Mg, which shows the WO3 are bonded on the Mg matrix by compaction. From the above results, it is concluded that the tungsten oxide nanoparticles bonded strongly with the Mg matrix.

Fig. 10.

FTIR spectra of the Mg (a), WO3 (b) and Mg-WO3 nanocomposite (c).


The results for the density of the samples are presented in Table 1. Also, Figs. 11 and 12 show the comparison of the experimental density and relative density results. As the results show, with increasing pressure, the experimental density of the samples also increased, due to the double-action compaction of most of the powders from both sides of the die, through the upper and lower punches of the double-action compaction. On the other hand, with the increasing nanoparticle percentage, the experimental density of the samples also increased due to the presence of WO3 dense nanoparticles in Mg matrix material. The results also show that with increasing nanoparticles percentage, the relative density of the samples decreased and the porosity of the samples increased. This is due to the presence of hard, non-ductile WO3 nanoparticles in the soft, ductile Mg material, which reduces the ability to compress these materials. Increasing nanoparticles reduces the ability to compress powders together [41].

Table 1.

The density results of produced samples.

Sample  Theory density (gr/cm3Experimental density (gr/cm3Relative density (gr/cm3Porosity(%) 
Pure Mg-300 MPa  1.738  1.600  0.920  7.94 
Pure Mg-500 MPa  1.738  1.617  0.930  6.96 
Pure Mg-700 MPa  1.738  1.656  0.952  4.71 
Mg-1.5 vol.%-300 MPa  1.819  1.710  0.940  5.99 
Mg-1.5 vol.%-500 MPa  1.819  1.740  0.956  4.34 
Mg-1.5 vol.%-700 MPa  1.819  1.782  0.979  2.03 
Mg-3 vol.%-300 MPa  1.9  1.751  0.921  7.84 
Mg-3 vol.%-500 MPa  1.9  1.782  0.937  6.21 
Mg-3 vol.%-700 MPa  1.9  1.799  0.946  5.31 
Mg-5 vol.%-300 MPa  2.009  1.812  0.901  9.80 
Mg-5 vol.%-500 MPa  2.009  1.855  0.923  7.66 
Mg-5 vol.%-700 MPa  2.009  1.894  0.942  5.72 
Fig. 11.

The graph of experimental density of produced sample.

Fig. 12.

The graph of relative density of produced sample.


The highest experimental density obtained belonged to the Mg-5 vol.% WO3 sample compressed at 700 MPa pressure equal to 1.894 gr/cm3[3] that 2.1% and 4.5% higher than the experimental density of the Mg-5 vol.% WO3-500 MPa and Mg-5 vol.% WO3-300 MPa samples, respectively.

As can be seen in Fig. 12, the relative density decreases with an increasing percentage of nanoparticles due to the presence of hard WO3 nanoparticles, which reduces their density and agglomeration in the matrix material and also increases the voids and porosities in the samples. Another factor affecting density results is the amount of pressure used to compaction the powders. The higher the applied pressure, the better and more compressible the powders, and as the pressure is also the double-action process, the effect of compaction on the powders is greater. Moreover, in double-action compaction, the particle arrangement was more noticeable than in the single-action compaction mode and fewer voids were observed in the samples. However, at specific percentages of nanoparticles, increasing pressure increased relative density and resulted in the powders mixing better together. The lowest relative density of Mg-5 vol.% WO3 nanocomposite sample compressed at 300 MPa pressure equal to 0.90, which was 2% and 4% less than Mg-5 vol.% WO3-500 MPa and Mg-5 vol.% WO3-700 MPa, respectively. In order to evaluate and validate the density results, the samples were prepared according to different percentages and pressures of SEM images (Fig. 13). As can be seen in the images, the higher the percentage of nanoparticles, the higher the number of voids, and the amount and number of voids decreased with increasing pressure. It should be noted that the voids and porosities are marked with red circles.

Fig. 13.

The SEM photo of surfaces of produced samples for discontinuity.


Due to the density results and the results of pressure 700 MPa which was better than the other used pressures, samples with different volume percentages of nanoparticles were produced for microhardness, wear tests and compressive strength behavior. For the high accuracy of the results, the Vickers microhardness test was repeated three times on the surface of the samples, and the results are presented in Table 2. Then, the average results of the microhardness tests are showed in Fig. 14.

Table 2.

The result of Vickers microhardness.

Sample  HV1  HV2  HV3 
Pure Mg  42  40  41 
Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3  41  46  45 
Mg-3 vol.% WO3  48  52  44 
Mg-5 vol.% WO3  50  52  57 
Fig. 14.

Variation of Vickers micro-hardness with WO3 content for fabricated samples.


As shown in Fig. 14, the hardness of the samples increased with the addition of reinforcing nanoparticles [42]. The hardness improvement can be due to two reasons: (a) the hardness of WO3 nano reinforcements, (b) the hardening effects of WO3 nanoparticles (the presence of WO3 reinforcements serves as a constraint to localized deformation during indentation). The reason for this increase is the presence of WO3 reinforcing nanoparticles, the uniform distribution of the nanoparticles, and the strong bonding with the matrix material. Moreover, in nanocomposite samples, when applying force, the nanoparticles play the primary role of load-bearing when applied to the matrix material. In addition, the results of Fig. 14 show that the highest hardness was for sample Mg-5 vol.% WO3 equal to 53 HV, which is 29% more than the pure Mg sample.

3.7Analysis of wear behavior

Due to the optimization of 700 MPa pressure in double-action compaction in the production of the samples described in the previous sections, samples with these conditions were also produced for wear testing. The wear behavior of the specimens was obtained by calculating the wear rate using Eq. (4):

W1 and W2, the sample’s weight before and after the wear test,? ? sample’s density, L and F are the distance traveled and the force applied in Newton, respectively [43]. The wear rate results of the specimens produced are presented in Table 3 and Fig. 15. According to the results, the wear rate of nanocomposite samples decreased compared to the pure Mg samples. The wear test results showed that with increasing nanoparticle percentages, the wear rate decreased to [44]. The lowest wear rate in sample Mg-5 vol.% WO3 was achieved 3.82 (10−6 × cm3/N.m), which is 67% lower than the wear rate of the Pure Mg sample. Nanoparticle hardness, proper distribution, and bonding between the reinforcing nanoparticles and the matrix material increased the hardness, strength, and resistance of the material during applied force plastic deformation. In the nanocomposite sample, the nanoparticles tolerate the force and less force is applied to the matrix material.

Table 3.

The result of wear test.

Sample  Initial mass (gr)  Final mass (gr)  Differential mass (gr)  Wear rate (10−6 . cm3/N.m) 
Pure Mg  4.4259  4.4048  0.0211  6.40 
Mg-1.5 vol.%WO3  4.4538  4.4372  0.0166  4.73 
Mg-3 vol.%WO3  4.4554  4.4397  0.0157  4.38 
Mg-5 vol.%WO3  4.4598  4.4457  0.0141  3.82 
Fig. 15.

The graph of wear test results.


To verify the results of the wear test, SEM images shown in Fig. 16 were prepared from the worn surfaces of the specimens. As can be seen in the figure, all nanocomposite samples have a smoother surface and thinner, less and shallower grooves than the pure Mg sample due to the presence of WO3 nanoparticles. Less plastic deformation occurred in these samples. According to the number and type of damage present on the surface of the specimens, as shown in Fig. 16, there is an increase in wear resistance by increasing the percentage of nanoparticles, which make the worn surfaces of the specimens have better external conditions and less plastic deformation [44]. Due to the double-action compaction used to produce the specimens, the amount of voids and porosities between the particles is reduced, resulting in better bonding between the matrix material and the nanoparticles, and the outcome is increased wear resistance. In reinforced specimens, continuous and parallel grooves indicate abrasive wear and the obtained wear rate confirms this result. The parallel grooves are evident in Fig. 16 imply that abrasion can also be a prevailing wear mechanism. This can be featured in the existence of hard WO3 nanoparticles which confine the material flow during sliding [45]. These hard particles behave as an abrasive agent and create most of the narrow grooves. As a result, the effective load is increased while transferred from the matrix to the hard ceramic particles, and accordingly, as WO3 fraction increases, the wear rate decreases. On the other hand, however, the image of the Pure Mg sample shows that the sample has undergone severe erosion and plastic deformation. Severe plastic deformation and transverse cracks on the surface of the specimens indicate adhesive wear.

Fig. 16.

The SEM photo of worn surfaces of produces samples.

3.8Compressive strength

To perform the compression test, nanocomposite samples with different volume percentages of WO3 at an optimum pressure of 700 MPa were produced just as with the microhardness and wear test. The results of the compressive strength of the specimens are shown in Table 4 and Fig. 17. In general, all nanocomposites had better compressive strength than pure Mg samples, due to the presence of WO3 nanoparticles and their proper bonding with the matrix material. Also, the main cause of the increase in the compressive strength of these samples is the hardness of the nanoparticles, which reduces the displacement motion and increases compressive strength [46]. It is also due to the weak bond between the nanoparticles and the Mg matrix material as well the difference of their thermal expansion coefficient, in accordance with the Orowan mechanism, during the application of force, causing the dislocations and increasing the strength [21].

Table 4.

The result of compressive strength.

Sample  Maximum strain (%)  Maximum stress (MPa) 
Pure Mg  0.54  174.68 
Mg-1.5 vol.%WO3  0.66  197.42 
Mg-3 vol.%WO3  0.52  165.21 
Mg-5 vol.%WO3  0.45  149.17 
Fig. 17.

The graph of compressive strength of produced samples.


The increase in the UCS of the nanocomposites is related to the influence of Orowan strengthening due to the presence of nano WO3 and differential between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Mg and WO3 that led to the generation of dislocations. Different thermal properties of the reinforcing particles and the matrix generally cause thermal stresses in the interface regions during the cooling stage of the compaction process. The thermal differential stress gradient is sufficiently large to produce plastic deformation at the boundaries. Moreover, small defects such as dislocation buildup in the vicinity of nano inclusions may be generated by this high-stress gradient [47] giving rise to enhancement of the strength of the composite. Zhang and Chen [47] believe that thermal differential stresses are the most significant reason for strength improvement of nanocomposites with a higher content of nano- reinforcement. Another reason for the increase in the final compressive strength is the creation of a MgO layer on the surface of the specimens that covers the entire exterior and can, as a reinforcer, helps in increasing the final compressive strength [48]. The results show that the best outcome was obtained in sample Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3 and then with increasing nanoparticles percentage, the results show a decreasing trend due to the increase in porosity and agglomeration in the samples with increasing nanoparticles percentage. The reason is that when the reinforcement content increases, the sample porosity will also increase, as discussed in Section 3.5. Furthermore, higher contents of hard ceramic WO3 nanoparticles increase the chance of nanoparticle agglomeration at the sample (see Fig. 4). Akbarpour et al. [49] demonstrated that the increase of SiC nano content from 4% to 6% in copper/SiC nanocomposite decreased the yield stress of the compacted powder. They attributed this behavior to weak bonding between particles in nanoparticle clusters.

The highest amount of elongation was obtained for sample Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3 and after that elongation decreased with increasing nanoparticles percentage, due to the stiffness and inflexible WO3 nanoparticles. According to the results, it is clear that the highest ultimate compressive strength of sample Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3 was 197.42 MPa, which was 13% and 32% more than pure Mg and Mg-5 vol.% WO3, respectively. Finally, to verify the results of the compression test, SEM images were taken from the fracture surface of the specimens. Fig. 18 shows that in sample pure Mg, the fracture and breakage at cross-sectional areas were higher than the other specimens, and the lowest breakage was in the sample containing 1.5 vol.% WO3, indicating that the brittle fracture has become ductile fracture. Some breakages are marked in red circles.

Fig. 18.

The SEM photo of fracture surfaces of produced samples.


In this paper, the effect of double-action compaction pressure and WO3 nanoparticles with different volume fraction on the physical and mechanical properties of Mg nanocomposite were investigated. The specimens were compacted through the cold press method and then sintered in an argon furnace. SEM images were performed for the microstructural examination of samples and verification of wear results on samples. Some results are as follows:

  • 1

    As the pressure increased, the relative density of the samples increased. For example, sample Mg-3%vol. WO3 increased by 2.7% by increasing the pressure from 300 MPa to 700 MPa.

  • 2

    Microhardness test results showed increasing hardness with an increasing percentage of nanoparticles, with the maximum hardness for sample Mg-5 vol.% WO3 equal to 52 HV which was 29% higher than sample pure Mg.

  • 3

    The wear rate results also showed that the wear rate of nanocomposite samples had a decreasing trend compared to sample pure Mg. The best result for the wear rate of sample Mg-5 vol.% WO3 was achieved 3.82 (10−6 × cm3/N.m), which was 14% and 67% lower than that of Mg-3 vol.% WO3 and pure Mg, respectively.

  • 4

    The results of the compression test were similar to the results of the wear test that increased with increasing reinforcement and the highest compressive strength belonging to sample Mg-1.5 vol.% WO3 equal to 197.4 MPa, which was 13% higher than the pure Mg sample.

Conflict of interest


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Kaveh Rahmani received his Ph.D in Mechanical Engineering from the Bu Ali Sina University (BASU), Hamedan, Iran in 2018. He is a Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Kar Higher Education Institute of Qazvin.

Ali Sadooghi received his Ph.D in Mechanical Engineering from the Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Tehran, Iran in 2018. He is a Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Kar Higher Education Institute of Qazvin.

Mohammad Nokhberoosta has his M.S in Mechanical Engineering from Kar Higher Education Institute of Qazvin in 2019. Her research interests include powder compaction and mechanical charactizastion.

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

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