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Vol. 9. Issue 1.
Pages 875-881 (January - February 2020)
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Vol. 9. Issue 1.
Pages 875-881 (January - February 2020)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.11.027
Open Access
Performance optimization for a hole in an oxide forming alloy foil under considering frequency effect of vibration
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Mei-Ling Zhanga, Feng-Xun Lib, Zhen-Zhe Lic,
Corresponding author
a13868659593@163.com

Corresponding author.
a School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, 325035, P.R. China
b Ulsan Ship and Ocean College, Ludong University, Shandong, 264025, P.R. China
c College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University, Zhejiang, 325035, P.R. China
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Abstract
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Figures (5)
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Experimental data.
Table 2. Case study of thermal cycling.
Table 3. Case study of thermo-mechanical cycling with different loading.
Table 4. Results under the condition of vibration having 10000cycles/min.
Table 5. Results under the condition of vibration having 5000cycles/min.
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Abstract

Some of the gas turbine components are exposed to high temperature corrosion. Therefore, the life cycle of gas turbine is directly affected by the durability of the components. The blades of the gas turbine are protected by film cooling holes under the condition of combining with thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. The TBC systems improve durability of the high temperature components under the condition of increasing the operating temperature. In order to improve the durability of TBC system, simulation and optimization methods were studied in this paper. Firstly, discussed a theoretical model under the thermal and mechanical loading conditions. In the following step, the hole deformations with the various thermo-mechanical conditions induced by high temperature environment and centripetal force due to rotation of the blade were optimized by design of experiments (DOE) method, in order to improve the durability of TBC system. Next, the deformations subjected to thermo-mechanical cycling induced by high temperature environment and vibration due to real operating condition were discussed. The results show that the effect of vibration is not significant compared to the effect of the centripetal force.

Keywords:
Thermally grown oxide
Gas turbine blade
Vibration
Optimization
Nomenclature
D

diameter of the hole

eg

TGO growth ratio

E

young’s modulus

f

objective function

G

shear modulus

h

TGO thickness

p

pressure

R

radius of the hole

T

temperature

T0

peak temperature

U

combined objective function

v

poison’s ratio

Δα

CTE mismatch between substrate and TGO layer

µg

increment of growth strain of TGO layer

εθθ

strain at the interface between the substrate and TGO

σrr_sub

stress in the substrate along the lateral direction

σYsub

yield strength of substrate

σYtgo

yield strength of TGO

sub

substrate

tgo

TGO

Full Text
1Introduction

TBCs(thermal barrier coatings) can prevent high temperature corrosion of heat resistant alloy in the gas turbine [1,2]. TBCs initially consisted of three layers: superalloy substrate; the bond coat (BC) and top porous zirconia coating. During operating at high temperature, a dense alumina layer, called thermally growth oxide (TGO), grown between top coating and BC [3–5]. Although the thickness of TGO layer is only a few microns, but it has an important influence on the durability of the TBCs. Common failure of TBCs occurs at BC/TGO interface or TGO/TBC interface. Due to the strain misfit, a substantial level of stresses are generated in TGO layer [2,6–8]. Pre-existing grooves or undulations on the BC are also influencing the instability of TBC [9,10]. The material strength of the TGO or BC is another factor in the propagation of TBC instability. The instability of imperfections depends largely on the strength of the TGO or BC [11,12]. The cooling holes on turbine blades also affect the durability of TBCs [13,14]. The film cooling can improve the efficiency of gas turbines, but complex thermo-mechanical cycles lead to the spalling of the TBCs.

Bartsch et al. [8,15–17] also studied the morphological instability of the TBCs, by a thermal gradient mechanical fatigue test device. During the operation of the turbine blades, due to centrifugal force, they usually bear both thermal cycles and mechanical loads. The mechanical load was applied by servohy-draulic testing machine. In order to heat the sample, the radiation of the bulbs was focused on the sample with a mirror. This machine produces a thermal gradient between internal cooling and external heating. The stress development evidently affected by high temperature deformation of creep [18]. Kang et al. [19,20] also tested high temperature creep properties of heat resistant alloy formed by alumina.

Recently, Li et al. [21,22] established a theoretical model to study the hole deformation during thermal and mechanical cycle [15]. Material properties of the substrate and TGO based on actual measurement or assumption, they analyzed with various conditions of thermo-mechanical load. However, even for the theoretical solution of the two-dimensional cylindrical model, the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Additionally, some researchers recommended new performance predition and optimization methods for TBCs which can be used to improve the durability of the gas turbine engines [23–26]. The results described above have made a useful scientific basis for our research.

In this paper, the effect of different design parameters on the hole deformation under thermo-mechanical load was studied by using the established theoretical model. In particular, the sensitivity of the growth strain and thickness of TGO layer, hole diameter was studied by design of experiments (DOE) method under the conditions of thermo-mechanical cycle caused by high temperature and centripetal force generated by blade rotation. The highlights of this paper is that the deformations subjected to thermo-mechanical cycles induced by the high temperature environment and vibration due to real operating conditions were discussed.

2Experimental and theoretical methods

In this section, the method of performance analysis of TBC system is proposed, according to the experimental data. With this method, the TBCs can protect the high temperature components from thermal corrosion by increasing operating temperature, so as to improve the efficiency of gas turbine engine.

2.1Specimen & experimental instruments

The following is an introduction to the experiments carried out in the author's previous work [21,22].

In order to simulate the mechanical behavior of BC layer, Fecralloy was used as model material whose properties is similar to the superalloys.

The specimen was cut into strips with 50 mm length, 5 mm width, and 0.35 mm thickness in size. A small hole was machined in each sample center with a mini drill, and the inside and outside surface of the hole were polished. A small material testing machine was mounted to load Fecralloy specimens in thermal cycle. Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the tester, a sample, an enlarged SEM photograph and a two-dimensional model for obtaining analytical solutions. Temperature and the TGO thickness were measured in-situ by two infrared pyrometers (CHINO, IR-FA1NNN and OMEGA, OS554-V1-E).

Fig. 1.

A schematic of the small scale material tester, a specimen, an enlarged SEM photo, and a 2D model used for analytic solution.

(0.1MB).

The specimens were under 20 thermo-mechanical cycling load, as shown in Fig. 2. Each cycle consists of holding for 30 min at the peak temperature. 1200 ℃, 5 min cooling to room temperature, 2 min hold at room temperature, 5 min heat to the peak temperature. The mechanical load was applied only during the dwelling at the peak temperature. The displacement near the hole were measured by digital image correlation (DIC) method [20].

Fig. 2.

The loading sequence for two of typical thermo-mechanical cycle.

(0.09MB).
2.2Theoretical model

In the authors’ previous work [21,22], the two-dimensional theoretical model was derived to evaluate the strain and stress distribution near the hole. Specifically, in the two-dimensional model, a cylindrical TGO shell matches to an infinite substrate with a small hole, as shown in Fig. 1. Firstly, the strain of each phase is considered to be unconstrained, and then the stress-strain equation along the interface of TGO is deduced by imposing constraints. Appendix A presents the details. The substrate and TGO layer were considered to be temperature-dependent elastic-plastic materials, respectively. During heating to peak temperature To, and cooling to room temperature, TRT, the system was driven by the thermal expansion mismatch between the substrate and TGO layer, ΔαΔT=(αsubtgo)ΔT. At the peak temperature, To, the system was driven by the TGO growth, Δεg.

During the cycling process, as shown in Fig. 2, the stress and strain distributions in the substrate and the TGO layer were gradually studied by using the theoretical solutions.

3Optimal design for upgrading stability of TBC system3.1Optimization strategies3.1.1Modeling method based on design of experiments

Experimental design is a method of selecting reasonable experimental points to obtain response values.

Fig. 3 is the flow chart of the optimization modeling method based on experimental design. The main idea of the optimization modeling method based on experimental design is to find the best one from the analysis case of DOE method selection.

Fig. 3.

Flow chart of modeling method for optimization based on design of experiments.

(0.19MB).
3.1.2Multi-objective optimization based on ideal point method

The multi-objective optimization strategy based on ideal point method is by comparing the ideal state of each design variable, multiple objectives can be transformed into one objective.

The detailed formula is shown in Eq. (1).

Where the f value has * symbols to represent the ideal value of each design variable.

3.2Optimization of thermo-mechanical cycling3.2.1Case induced by high temperature environment and centripetal force due to rotation of blade

In this section, to select the experimental points the D-optimal method was used, which is one of the DOE methods.

In this optimization, the design parameters were the TGO thickness (h), the TGO growth ratio (eg) and the hole diameter (D).

The evaluated values were the strain (εθθ) at the interface between the substrate and TGO layer and the substrate stress (σrr_sub) in the along the lateral direction.

Table 1 is the experimental data obtained in previous studies [21,22]. At the same time, these data were the initial data of this optimization. Fig. 4 is the high temperature creep properties of the Fecralloy with TGO layer. Based on these data, 20 cycles theoretical results can be obtained, including some useful data in previous studies such as material properties. In this study, the peak temperature was fixed to 1473 K.

Table 1.

Experimental data.

cycle  eg(Increasing value of each cycle)  h (mm) (Increasing value of each cycle)  D (mm) 
0.002583  0.001 
0.002597  0.00078 
0.002325  0.00052 
0.002165  0.00034 
0.002066  0.00023 
0.001997  0.00016 
0.001943  0.00012 
0.001896  0.0001 
0.001854  9.2E-05 
10  0.001816  8.7E-05 
11  0.001782  8.3E-05 
12  0.001753  7.7E-05 
13  0.001728  7E-05 
14  0.001707  6.2E-05 
15  0.001689  5.4E-05 
16  0.001674  4.7E-05 
17  0.00166  4.1E-05 
18  0.001649  3.7E-05 
19  0.001641  3.2E-05 
20  0.001638  2.4E-05 
Fig. 4.

Creep properties, n and σo of Fecralloy foils with the TGO layer formed on the surface at 1200 °C.

(0.09MB).

Based on Tables 2 and 3, we can see that using the D-optimal DOE method the 15 experimental points were selected. Table 2 shows the pure thermal cycles, and Table 3 shows the thermo-mechanical cycles with different mechanical loads of 0.2 MPa, 0.5 MPa and 1 MPa respectively. In Tables 2 and 3, the values of 1, 0 and −1 mean 1.2 times of initial value, initial value and 0.8 times of initial value of each design parameters. From Tables 2 and 3, it can be found out that with the increase of mechanical load, the strain at the interface and the substrate stress have been increased.

Table 2.

Case study of thermal cycling.

eg  h  D  εθθ  σrr_sub (MPa) 
−1  −1  0.03087  0.507539 
−1  −1  0.03854  0.590342 
−1  0.03094  0.532009 
0.03855  0.462785 
−1  0.0385  0.507539 
0.03913  0.555342 
−1  −1  0.04522  0.590342 
−1  0.04518  0.393562 
0.0452  0.462785 
−1  0.03093  0.555342 
0.04521  0.532009 
−1  −1  0.0309  0.393562 
−1  −1  −1  0.0309  0.590342 
0.04521  0.555342 
−1  0.0452  0.572439 
Table 3.

Case study of thermo-mechanical cycling with different loading.

eg  h  D  Case of 0.2 MPa εθθ  Case of 0.2 MPa σrr_sub (MPa)  Case of 0.5 MPa εθθ  Case of 0.5 MPa σrr_sub (MPa)  Case of 1 MPa εθθ  Case of 1 MPa σrr_sub (MPa) 
−1  −1  0.076926  0.512447  0.275888  0.522925  0.527025  0.532079 
−1  −1  0.084599  0.59525  0.283561  0.605728  0.534698  0.614882 
−1  0.076999  0.536917  0.275961  0.547395  0.527098  0.556549 
0.084612  0.467693  0.283574  0.478171  0.534711  0.487325 
−1  0.084562  0.512447  0.283524  0.522925  0.534661  0.532079 
0.085183  0.56025  0.284145  0.570728  0.535282  0.579882 
−1  −1  0.091276  0.59525  0.290238  0.605728  0.541375  0.614882 
−1  0.09124  0.39847  0.290202  0.408948  0.541339  0.418102 
0.091253  0.467693  0.290215  0.478171  0.541352  0.487325 
−1  0.076983  0.56025  0.275945  0.570728  0.527082  0.579882 
0.091265  0.536917  0.290227  0.547395  0.541364  0.556549 
−1  −1  0.076962  0.39847  0.275924  0.408948  0.527061  0.418102 
−1  −1  −1  0.076962  0.59525  0.275924  0.605728  0.527061  0.614882 
0.091269  0.56025  0.290231  0.570728  0.541368  0.579882 
−1  0.091259  0.577347  0.290221  0.587825  0.541358  0.596979 

As shown in Tables 2 and 3, it can be found out that the trend is the same. For instance, from the strain at the interface, the 1st case is the best. On the other hand, from the substrate stress, 8th and 12th cases were the best cases.

For considering both of the strain at the interface and the substrate stress, the multi-objective optimization was applied for each case based on Tables 2 and 3.

The ideal values for the strain at the interface and the substrate stress were set as 0 and 0 MPa respectively.

Tables 2 and 3 show the same trends, when considering both the strain at the interface and the substrate stress simultaneously.

The 12th case is the best case to solve this multi-objective problems.

3.2.2Case induced by high temperature environment and vibration due to rotational speed of blade

In this section, the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling induced by vibration having frequency of 10,000 cycles/min or 5000 cycles/min was checked under the condition of having the magnitude of 0.2 MPa, 0.5 MPa or 1 MPa.

Vibration having the frequency of 10,000 cycles/min was added to the maintaining period of high temperature (30 min), and each vibration experiences tension and compression periodically. Because the mechanical loading is not changed in this period, σθθ_sub_m is the mechanical stress (0.2 MPa, 0.5 MPa, 1 MPa). But, because σθθ_sub is produced due to TGO growth in the thermal cycling, it will be increased from 0 MPa to 4.38 MPa which is the limit of the substrate when starting the high temperature maintaining period. When experiencing tension, we adopted the form of adding the thermal stress and the mechanical stress. When experiences compression, we change it under the condition of considering the directions are different.

Based on the Table 4, it can be found out that the trend is the same. For instance, from the strain at the interface, the 1st case is the best case. On the other hand, from the substrate stress, 8th and 12th cases were the best cases.

Table 4.

Results under the condition of vibration having 10000cycles/min.

eg  h  D  Case of 0.2 MPa εθθ  Case of 0.2 MPa σrr_sub (MPa)  Case of 0.5 MPa εθθ  Case of 0.5 MPa σrr_sub (MPa)  Case of 1 MPa εθθ  Case of 1 MPa σrr_sub (MPa) 
−1  −1  0.058899  0.512447  0.136614  0.522925  0.252583  0.532079 
−1  −1  0.066572  0.59525  0.144287  0.605728  0.260256  0.614882 
−1  0.058972  0.536917  0.136687  0.547395  0.252656  0.556549 
0.066585  0.467693  0.1443  0.478171  0.260269  0.487325 
−1  0.066535  0.512447  0.14425  0.522925  0.260219  0.532079 
0.067156  0.56025  0.144871  0.570728  0.26084  0.579882 
−1  −1  0.073249  0.59525  0.150964  0.605728  0.266933  0.614882 
−1  0.073213  0.39847  0.150928  0.408948  0.266897  0.418102 
0.073226  0.467693  0.150941  0.478171  0.26691  0.487325 
−1  0.058956  0.56025  0.136671  0.570728  0.25264  0.579882 
0.073238  0.536917  0.150953  0.547395  0.266922  0.556549 
−1  −1  0.058935  0.39847  0.13665  0.408948  0.252619  0.418102 
−1  −1  −1  0.058935  0.59525  0.13665  0.605728  0.252619  0.614882 
0.073242  0.56025  0.150957  0.570728  0.266926  0.579882 
−1  0.073232  0.577347  0.150947  0.587825  0.266916  0.596979 

Table 4 shows the same trends when considering the strain at the interface and the substrate stress simultaneously. The 12th case is the best case when solving these multi-objective problems.

Also, the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling induced by the high temperature environment and vibration due to real operating conditions was compared to the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling induced by the high temperature environment and the centripetal force due to rotation of blade. Based on comparting Table 4 to Tables 2 and 3, it can be seen that the stress in the substrate along the lateral direction is nearly the same. But, the effect of the centripetal force is much more important compared to the effect of vibration under the condition of having the same magnitude on the view of the strain between the substrate and TGO layer.

For testing the effect of frequency of vibration, we changed it to 5000 cycles/min. Table 5 shows the results having the magnitude of 0.2 MPa, 0.5 MPa or 1 MPa. From the results, it can be found out that the frequency of vibration has no significant effect under the condition of having 10,000 cycles/min or 5000 cycles/min.

Table 5.

Results under the condition of vibration having 5000cycles/min.

eg  h  D  Case of 0.2 MPa εθθ  Case of 0.2 MPa σrr_sub (MPa)  Case of 0.5 MPa εθθ  Case of 0.5 MPa σrr_sub (MPa)  Case of 1 MPa εθθ  Case of 1 MPa σrr_sub (MPa) 
−1  −1  0.058899  0.512447  0.136614  0.522925  0.252584  0.532079 
−1  −1  0.066572  0.59525  0.144287  0.605728  0.260257  0.614882 
−1  0.058972  0.536917  0.136687  0.547395  0.252657  0.556549 
0.066585  0.467693  0.1443  0.478171  0.26027  0.487325 
−1  0.066535  0.512447  0.14425  0.522925  0.26022  0.532079 
0.067156  0.56025  0.144871  0.570728  0.260841  0.579882 
−1  −1  0.073249  0.59525  0.150964  0.605728  0.266934  0.614882 
−1  0.073213  0.39847  0.150928  0.408948  0.266898  0.418102 
0.073226  0.467693  0.150941  0.478171  0.266911  0.487325 
−1  0.058956  0.56025  0.136671  0.570728  0.252641  0.579882 
0.073238  0.536917  0.150953  0.547395  0.266923  0.556549 
−1  −1  0.058935  0.39847  0.13665  0.408948  0.25262  0.418102 
−1  −1  −1  0.058935  0.59525  0.13665  0.605728  0.25262  0.614882 
0.073242  0.56025  0.150957  0.570728  0.266927  0.579882 
−1  0.073232  0.577347  0.150947  0.587825  0.266917  0.596979 

In order to study the frequency effect much more, we analyzed the strain at the interface with variation of the frequency under the condition of 0.2 MPa. As shown in Fig. 5, the frequency effect is small when the frequency is larger than 100 cycles/min.

Fig. 5.

Strain at the interface with variation of frequency.

(0.08MB).
4Concluding remarks

The TBCs can improve durability of the high temperature components through increasing the life cycles of the TBCs, and also improve the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engines through increasing the operating temperature of the gas turbine engines.

In this study, the theoretical and experimental evaluations for the hole deformation with the conditions of thermo-mechanical cycling loads which induced by the centripetal force and the high temperature environment or vibration were performed to improve the durability of TBCs, and also the optimization method were developed to improve the performance of the TBCs. The life cycles of TBCs can be improved about 20 % by using the developed methods.

Compared to the thermo-mechanical load due to centripetal force and high temperature environment, the thermo-mechanical load induced by vibration and high temperature environment is not so significant.

Conflict of interest

The authors confirm that the submitted manuscript is original and unpublished, is being submitted only to this editor and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

The authors confirm that all authors have participated in, read, and agree with the content and conclusions of the manuscript.

The authors confirm that there is no conflict of interest regarding a financial supporter.

Acknowledgements

The results are based upon the works supported by the Planned Science and Technology Project of Wenzhou City in China under Grant No. G20180004.

Appendix A

The plane stress condition was applied to the theoretical model. Firstly, when the elastic deformations of the substrate and TGO layer occur simultaneously, the stress and strain of the substrate and TGO layer are given as functions of p.

σθθ_tgo=−pRh (1)

σθθ_sub=p (2)

σrr_sub=−p (3)

εθθ_sub=ur_subR=p2Gsub=p1+vsubEsub (4)

εθθ_tgo=ur_tgoR=pREtgoh (5)

where G, E and ν are the shear modulus, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, respectively.

The sum of the hoop strains in the substrate and TGO layer, εθθ_subθθ_tgo was equal to the strain difference, εT.

εT is Δα ΔT or εg during cooling/reheating or during hold at the peak temperature. Hence the p can be related to εT as follows;

p=εT1+vsubEsub+REtgoh−1 (6)

The yield conditions for the TGO layer and substrate are given by Eqs. (7) and (8), respectively.

σθθ_tgo=σYtgo; (7)

22σrr_sub−σθθ_sub2+σθθ_sub2+σrr_sub212=σYsub; (8)

Here σYtgo and σYsub are the yield strengths of the TGO and substrate, respectively. When the TGO layer is in yield state, it is assumed that p remains constant, and hence, the strains or stresses are kept constant. While the substrate is at yield, and while TGO deform elastically, the region near the hole undergoing plastic deformation, and the radius of the plastic zone RP increase with the pressure. Hence the p and εθθ_sub are governed by Eqs. (9) and (10);

p=131+2InRpRσYsub (9)

εθθ_sub=365−4vRpR2−(1−2v)3+6InRpRεYsub (10)

where εYsub=σYsubEsub. Because the TGO is still deform elastically, the stress and strain in the TGO layer are given by

σθθ_tgo=233Rh1+2InRpRσYsub (11)

εθθ_tgo=233EsubREtgoh12+InRpRεYsub (12)

and Rp can be related to εT as follows;

εTεYsub=364RpR2−312+InRpR+233EsubREtgoh12+InRpR (13)

When the pressure reachesp=−σYtgohR, the TGO layer yields, too, it is assumed that p remains constant. The strains or stresses remains constant.

Under the thermo-mechanical cycling loads, applied an additional tensile stress, during the hold at the peak temperature. With the remotely applied stress,σ∞, the radial and hoop stresses at point A is given by

σrr_sub_m=σ∞20.96−2+GtgoGsubR−hR2+1−GtgoGsub21+GtgoGsubR−hR2+1+2GtgoGsub (14)

σrr_sub_m=σ∞22.88+2+GtgoGsubR−hR2+1−GtgoGsub21−GtgoGsubR−hR2+1+2GtgoGsub (15)

where the subscript m represents the mechanical stress remotely applied. The mechanical stress superimposed to the thermal stress is sufficient to cause creep deformation near the point A. To calculate the creep strain, the sum of the stress by Eq. (15) and that by Eq. (4) or (10) is substituted into the creep material properties of the substrate. That is the creep strain rate was calculated by

ε•ssε•o=σθθ_sub+σθθ_sub_mσon (16)

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