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Vol. 9. Issue 2.
Pages 1457-1467 (March - April 2020)
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Vol. 9. Issue 2.
Pages 1457-1467 (March - April 2020)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.11.071
Open Access
Mixed oxides CuO-NiO fabricated for selective detection of 2-Aminophenol by electrochemical approach
E.F. Abo Zeida,*, A.M. Nassarb,c,*, M.A. Husseind,e, M.M. Alamf, Abdullah M. Asirid,e, H.H. Hegazyg,h, Mohammed M. Rahmand,i
a Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, 71516, Egypt
b Chemistry Department, College of Science, Jouf University, P.O. Box 2014, Saudi Arabia
c Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-AzharUniversity, Cairo, Egypt
d Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
e Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut, Egypt
f Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
g Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha, Saudi Arabia
h Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University; 71524 Assiut; Egypt
i Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Tables (2)
Table 1. The comparison of analytic performance of aminophenol chemical sensor with various modified electrode by I–V method.
Table 2. Measured concentration of the 2-AP analyte in real sample.
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New heterometallic complex [NiCu(NO3)2(H2O)2] (1) was prepared via the reaction of aqueous solutions of (oxalic acid, nickel nitrate and copper nitrate). Mixed oxide CuO-NiO was successfully obtained with different morphological structures (2) and (3) through the annealing of 1 at different temperature 300°C and 600°C, respectively. The materials were characterized using FT-IR, TGA, XRD and SEM. As showed from XRD data, with increasing the calcination temperature the crystallinity of CuO-NiO in sample 3 was improved and the diffraction peaks exhibited narrower and stronger than CuO-NiO in sample 2. The average size of CuO-NiO crystals obtained was calculated from Debye-Scherrer equation and found to be 16.65nm. To assemble the working electrode of 2-aminophenol (2-AP) chemical sensor, a thin layer of CuO-NiO NPs was deposited on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with conducting binder and used to detect 2-AP in aqueous medium successfully. The chemical sensor is exhibited the higher stability, good sensitivity (20.2729μAmM−1cm−2) and enhanced electrochemical activity at room conditions. Therefore, the fabricated chemical sensor with active CuO-NiO NPs may be an effective and sensitive sensor for detection of hazardous materials by reliable I–V method for broad scales environmental safety of and healthcare sectors.

Mixed oxides
2-aminophenol sensor
Electrochemical method
Glassy carbon electrode
Environmental safety.
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Mixed metal oxides have wide applications in different fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering. The combination of two or more metal oxides produces a new composite with novel physical and chemical properties for uses in various fields [1]. The novel properties of mixed metal oxides composites may be resulted from the independent properties of each metal oxide or modified by interactions between metal-metal and metal-oxygen-metal which improve the performance of the nano-structured system [2].The surface contact between oxides composites enhances the charge transfer, charge separation efficiency and charge carrier life times [3]. Therefore, mixed metal oxides are considered as sources for high surface area composites with controlled nano-structured materials. Materials composed of NiO/CuO have become very important in wide scale of applications [4–15]. The synthesized mixed NiO/CuO composites have a physicochemical properties that can be completely different that of the individual metal oxide [16]. Several works [17–21] have studied the pure and doped mixed Cu-Ni oxides. CuO-NiO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles are well known to have a several applications such as catalysts for many organic reactions [22–24], non-enzymatic glucose sensors [25], sensors of humidity [26]. When the system of CuO-NiO supported γ-Al2O3, it becomes efficient catalyst in N-Alkylation of morphine [27] and ethylenediamine [28] with alcohols. Different methods have been used for preparation of these types of materials, such as impregnation [29], precipitation followed by thermal heating [30], electrochemical [31] combustion [32] and the sol–gel method [33]. These methods were used to form the binary CuO-NiO systems are deposited on mechanically strong supports such as alumina and silica [34,35].

In last decade, the protection of environment from the pollution is global concern. The toxic and hazardous compounds are coming in the environment as a waste from industries (pharmaceutical, chemical and others) and various man making activities, and resulting harmful effect to human, animal and plant life [36–38]. There are two types of aminophenol (AP) such as 2-AP and 4-AP and these are important industrial raw material widely used as synthetic intermediates, chemical inhibitors and petroleum additives [39]. Thus, there is a high possibility to contaminate the environment especially the water bodies with AP. Generally, the aminophenol (AP) is irritants and the toxic range of AP is from slight to moderate. Due to the contamination of AP may cause skin sensitization, itching, allergy, and dermatitis [40], and 2-AP can be damaged DNA [41]. Thus, the extensively use and constantly release of this toxic pollutant in environment, may cause the long-term ecological risks to human, plants and aquatic living organism [42]. Considering the toxicity of 2-AP, there is very important to development of an efficient analytical method for detection of 2-AP in aqueous medium. There are a number of analytical methods to determination of 2-AP in aqueous medium such as spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [43], calorimetric [44], and electrochemical methods [45–47]. Most of these, the electrochemical approach (I–V method) is a promising in collective characteristics of chemical sensor such as good sensitivity, high selectivity, large dynamic range, lower detection limit, simple instrumentation and long-term stable in chemical environment [48–50].

Our aim in this work is to fabricate a selective chemical sensor based on active CuO-NiO NPs and used to detect 2-AP in aqueous medium by reliable, efficient and high sensitive I–V method for first time. The CuO-NiO NPs was prepared by simple wet-chemical method. A thin layer of synthesized CuO-NiO NPs was coated on a GCE with the conducting binder to result the working electrode of the proposed chemical sensor. The CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE sensor has been exhibited good sensitivity with lower detection limit to detect 2-AP by I–V method at the condition of executing.

2Experimental2.1Materials and reagents

The chemicals used in this work were oxalic acid, copper nitrate and nickel nitrate were used from Sigma–Aldrich (USA) and used as received. Distilled water was used in all experiments. The analytical grade chemicals such as p-nitrophenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phenyl hydrazine (pHyd), 3-methoxyphenylhydrazine (3-MPHyd), m-tolyl hydrazine hydrochlorode (m-THyd), 2-aminophenol (2-AP), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), 3-methoxyphenol (3-MP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 3-methylaniline (3-MA), ammonium hydroxide, monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate, were from Sigma-Aldrich (USA) and used as received. The solvents and reagents were extra pure and used without any further purification.

2.2Synthesis of CuO-NiO mixed oxides

The precursor was synthesized according to the method reported [21] with some modifications and different products. Aqueous solutions of equal amounts from oxalic acid, copper nitrate and nickel nitrate were mixed with each other. The mixture was heated at 75°C with stirring for 2h. The compound 1 was produced as greenish blue precipitate was filtered off, washing several times with hot water then kept to dry in furnace at 110°C. The systems CuO-NiO, 2 and CuO-NiO, 3 are obtained with aging compound 1 at 300°C and 600°C for 2h.


FT-IR spectra were performed using Thermo-Nicolet-6700 FT-IR spectrophotometer. X-ray investigation was conducted using a Philips diffractometer (Model PW 2103, λ=1.5418Å, 35 KV and 20mA) with a source of CuKα1 radiation (Ni Filtered). The grain size D is calculated by the following relation well-known Scherer's formula [51]:

Where β is the observed angular width at half maximum intensity of the peak and calculated from:
Where βs is the measured line width at half maximum and βo is the instrumental broadening βo=0.16 with the apparatus used [52]. K is dimension less number, which is equal to 0.89, λ is the X-ray wavelength (1.5418Å for Cu Kα1) and θ is the diffraction angle. The TGA & DTG measurements were recorded using TA instrument apparatus model TGA-Q500 with heating rate of 10°C/min under N2 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy images were detected by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (JEOL JSM-7600F, Japan). The current vs. potential (I–V) measurements method used for 2-AP determination at the potential range of 0∼1.5V by Keithley electrometer (6517A, USA).

2.4Fabrication of GCE with CuO-NiO NPs

The buffer solution pH 7.0 was prepared using monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) and disodium phosphate (Na2HPO4). The working electrode of proposed chemical sensor, a slurry of CuO-NiO NPs was fabricated and used to coat on GCE with nafion binder (5% ethanol/ nafion solution). Then, the modified GCE was kept in oven at 35°C for one hour to dry the conduction film. Thus, an electrochemical cell was designed with CuO- NiO NPs/binder/GCE is the working electrode and Pt-wire is the counter electrode. A series of concentrations from 2AP (0.1nM ∼ 0.1M) was prepared and assembled in the electrochemical cell as the target analyte. The efficiency of the CuO/NiO as chemical sensor was determined from the slope of current- vs concentration calibration curve of 2-AP. The linear dynamic rang (LDR) of the projected chemical sensor was calculated from calibration curve at the range, where the regression (r2) coefficient value is maximum and detection limit was calculated at signal to noise ratio of 3. The utilized Electrometer, which provides the constant voltage for I–V measurement, is simple two-electrode system. Amount of 0.1M PBS-solution was kept constant in the beaker as 10.0mL throughout the chemical investigation.

3Results and discussion

Mixed copper oxide/nickel oxide nanocomposite has been prepared from its corresponding heterodinuclear precursor complex [NiCu(NO3)2(H2O)2] by normal calcinations at two different temperatures (300°C and 600°C)in a muffle furnace. Prior that preparation, heterodinuclear precursor complex has been prepared by the interaction of aqueous mixture from oxalic acid, nickel nitrate and copper nitrate according to the method reported in the literature [21]. The structures of the precursor and the heat treatment products are displays in Scheme1.Our main target for such preparation is to study and develop the phenolic sensor based on mixed metal oxides at room condition for the environmental safety.

Scheme 1.

Heat treatment of precursor 1.

3.1Materials characterizations

Various characterization techniques are used to identify as well as to characterize the prepared precursor as well as the mixed oxides at two different temperatures 300°C and 600°C respectively. The Infrared spectrum of precursor is recorded and compared with that of the oxalic acid [53], Fig. 1. The spectrum of complex ASP shows the weakness of the broadness band at 3400cm−1 which may be assignable to the elimination of the crystalline water molecules of oxalic acid and formation the coordinated water molecules in the complex. The strong band at 3350cm−1 which is due to νOH in the oxalic acid spectrum is vanished in the complex spectrum indicating the deprotonation of hydroxyl groups and binding with metal ions as O[54]. This is confirmed by the appearance of strong band at 487cm−1 due to ν M-O. The coordination of nitrate groups with metal ions is confirmed from the observation of two strong bands at 1357 and 1313cm−1 which are assigned to νasym (NO3) and νsym (NO3), respectively, indicate the coordination of nitrate group to the metal ions in bidentate form [55]. The spectrum of oxalic acid displays a sharp doublet at 1607 and 1670cm−1which attributed to ν CO and confirm the trans configuration of the two carboxylate groups [56]. In complex spectrum, the sharp single band at 1600cm−1 indicates the reducing in bond strength due to the coordination of carbonyl oxygen with metal ions. The IR spectrum of CuO-NiO exhibits only resolved shoulders in the IR spectra at 606 and 468cm−1 assigned to the characteristic vibrations of Ni-O and Cu-O, respectively [57–59].

Fig. 1.

IR spectra of oxalic acid, precursor and precursor pre-calcined at 300°C and 600°C in air for 2h.


The XRD patterns of as prepared heterodinuclear complex (ASP) and its annealing products at 300 ºC, 2 and 600 ºC, 3 are depicted in Fig. 2. The diffraction peaks of precursor heterodinuclear complex are indexed as matching between a polycrystalline phases. As is clear from XRD pattern, the precursor is completely converted to mixed nano NiO/CuO with annealing at 300 °C and 600 °C for 2h. The diffraction peaks for samples 2 and 3 are indexed to monoclinic CuO phase, with a lattice parameters a=0.463nm, b=0.341nm and c=0.510nm and plane angles as α=γ=90º and β=99.48º (JCPDS card, no. 01-1117) and a cubic NiO phase with a lattice parameters a =0.417nm and plane angles as α=γ=β=90º (JCPDS card, no. 01-1239) [52]. This demonstrates the presence of NiO/CuO in crystalline system. Also, no impurity peaks e.g., Cu(NO3)2, Cu2O or Ni(NO3)2 exist, which confirm the phase-pure structure of the prepared samples. From Debye-Scherrer equation, the average size of CuO-NiO NPs is about 16.65nm. In addition, the sample 3 shows narrower and stronger intensities of diffraction peaks than sample 2 which indicates the crystalinity of NiO/CuO is enhanced by increasing the calcination temperature.

Fig. 2.

XRD patterns of a precursor heterodinuclear complex (ASP) and its product after calcination at 300°C and 600°C in air for 2h.


The thermal behavior of precursor (ASP) and mixed CuO-NiO nanoconposite is displayed in a heating rate 10°C/min under nitrogen atmosphere as given in Figs. 3 and 4. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal gravimetry (DTG) curves for ASP are illustrated in Fig. 3a.

Fig. 3.

TGA and DTG curves of precursor (ASP) (a), mixed CuO-NiO nanocomposite (300°C) (b), and mixed CuO-NiO nanocomposite (600°C) (c).

Fig. 4.

TGA (a) and DTG (b) curves of precursor (ASP), mixed CuO-NiO nanocomposite (300°C) and mixed CuO-NiO nanocomposite (600°C).


TGA of ASP shows two steps of decomposition. The first step (25−223°C) is corresponding to the elimination of two coordinated water molecules (calc.=9.72%, found=9.55%). The second step (223–290°C) is related to thermal decomposition of two carbon dioxide and two nitrogen dioxide molecules (calc.=48.64%, found=48.59%) remaining CuO-NiO mixture oxides as residue (calc.=41.81%, found=41.86%). Whereas, Fig. 3(b and c) shows the thermal behavior for CuO-NiO (300°C) and CuO-NiO (600°C) and as expected no significant thermal degradation is observed in both cases due to both of them represent metal oxide from. Both forms are thermally stable up to 800°C. More particularly, Fig. 4(a and b) shows the thermal properties for the same compounds in a comparative show in order to how the big difference among the prepared materials.

The SEM images show the morphological features of mixed CuO-NiO nanocomposite are illustrated in Fig. 5. The morphology of nano-composites reveals that particles are non-spherical, regular and uniform in shape. They reveal randomly oriented aggregates and formation of nano-crystalline material. Inspection of this image revealed that, the larger aggregates size results from the calcination at 600°C, this agglomeration causes the increasing of the crystallite size of the particles.

Fig. 5.

SEM images of CuO-NiO nanocomposite (600°C) under lower as well as higher magnifications, insets are its high magnification SEM images.

3.2Applications: detection of 2-AP byCuO-NiO NPs

Here, the proposed chemical sensor with CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE was used to execute the sensing performance of 2-AP in phosphate buffer medium. The proposed 2-AP chemical sensor based on CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE is developed for the first time. The 5% ethanolic suspension of nafion was used as conducting binder (chemical glue) to fabricate 2-AP chemical sensor onto GCE, where the nafion binder is significantly enhanced the stability, conductivity and electron transfer rate of fabricated working electrode [60,61]. Therefore, the assembled electrode is exhibited the high stability in air and chemical environment which enhanced electrochemical performance during the sensing of 2-AP. The desire application of the proposed chemical sensor is to detect 2-AP in aqueous medium by electrochemical approach, which is measured on the thin film of CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE sensor probe. During the electrochemical measurement, the holding time in the used electrometer was set at 1.0sec. A possible oxidation mechanism of 2-AP is represented in Scheme 2.

Scheme 2.

Sensing mechanism of 2-AP with CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE sensor probe.


During the sensing performance of 2-AP based on CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE, an enhancement of electron in aqueous system is observed by electrochemical investigation. The conductivity is significantly increased which is measured by electrochemical approach. Based on the possible oxidation mechanism of 2-AP as in the above Scheme 2, 2-AP is adsorbed onto the surface of fabricated working electrode. By electrochemical oxidation, it is produced the benzoquinone, ammonia as well as released electrons [62].

During the sensing performance of 2-AP, the chemical reactions of oxidation process are presented according to the reaction (i) and (ii).

From the above mentioned reactions (i) and (ii), the releasing electron are increased the conductance of the working electrode of proposed chemical sensor and it is the only reason to the enhancement of electrochemical response.

A number of environmental toxins are investigated at micro-level concentration and such I–V responses of P-nitrophenol (p-NP), bisphenol A(BPA), phenylhydrazine (PHyd), 3-methoxyphenylhydrazine (3-mpHyd), M-tolylhydrazinehydrochlorode (m-THyd), 2-aminophenol (2-AP), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), 3-methoxyphenol (3-MP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 3-methylaniline (3-MA) are illustrated in Fig. 6(a). As it is in Fig. 6(a), obviously, 2-AP is exhibited maximum and intensive I–V response. The ability to produce replicated I–V response is very important analytical performance of a chemical sensor. Thus, the reproducibility of projected chemical sensor has been tested at 0.01 μM concentration of 2-AP and pH of 7.0. The Fig. 6(c) is represented eight replicate runs under identical conditions, basically the responses are indistinguishable and providing evidence for the reliability of the method. It should be mentioned that the I–V responses of reproducibility performance are not demonstrated appreciable changes even after washing of the working electrode of projected chemical sensor after each trial. The percentages of relative standard deviation (% RSD) has been calculated and it is found to be 2.18 at applied potential +1.5V. The response time of a chemical sensor is an important criteria to validate and it is also a measurement of the efficiency of a chemical sensor. This test has been executed at 0.01μM concentration of 2-AP and pH of 7.0 and data has been represented in Fig. 6(d). The steady state response has been obtained at around 12.0sec. a result that might be a value of highly satisfactory.

Fig. 6.

Optimization of 2-AP sensor with CuO-NiO NPs (a) Selectivity, (b) control experiment, (c) repeatability, and (d) response time.


The current vs. potential (I–V) response of 2-AP was investigated at varying concentration in the range of 0.1nM ∼0.1M and data is represented in Fig. 7(a). Obviously, this is very wide range, applied potential is higher than +1.0V and the responses are distinguishable at different concentration.A current vs concentration of 2-AP is plotted in Fig. 7(b) and current data has been collected from Fig. 7(a) at applied potential +1.5V. This plot is linear with the concentration axis in logarithmic scale and the plot is fitted to the linear relation with regression coefficient, r2=0.9767. The sensitivity of 2-AP chemical sensor is calculated from the slop of linear curve (Fig. 7(b)) at applied potential +1.5V and the estimated sensitivity is to be 20.2729μAmM−1cm−2. The linear dynamic range (LDR) is found to be 0.1nM-0.01M and detection limit is 50±2.5pM at signal to noise ratio of 3. Therefore, it should be predicted that the projected chemical sensor could be applied to detect 2-AP in a wide range of concentration.

Fig. 7.

(a) Concentration variation of 2-AP sensor based on CuO-NiO NPs/GCE by I–V method and (b) calibration curve (Inset: log [2-AP. Conc.] vs. Current).


As it is illustrated in Fig. 7(a), the current is directly varies with concentration of 2-AP I neutral buffer medium. Thus, the increasing tendency of current signal is observed with the increasing of concentration of 2-AP. This similar observation has been reported by previous authors as well [63–66]. During the beginning of sensing performance of 2-AP, the surface coverage on the working electrode is very small with the few number of 2-AP molecules adsorbed on the thin film of CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE and the oxidation reaction of 2-AP starts progressively. With increasing of analyte (2-AP) molecules on the surface of working electrode, the surface coverage with corresponding molecules of 2-AP is also become larger. With further enrichment of 2-AP concentration in the sensing medium, the surface coverage becomes larger and approaches its equilibrium state. Thus, in this condition, the surface reaction rate and correspondingly the current density attains a steady state value. The data represented in Fig. 7(b) describe this steady state current vs. concentration relation, and as seen in the Fig. 7(b), the experimental data are homogeneously distributed around the linear plot. Thus, in a short, it can be concluded that the projected chemical sensor based on CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE can be implemented to detect and quantification of 2-AP in aqueous medium. As it is represented in Fig. 7(d), around 12.0sec. is required by the proposed chemical sensor for steady state response of 2-AP detection. Therefore, with some reserve, the data recording time can be put to 14.0sec. Considering the high sensitivity (20.2729μAmM−1cm−2) of the projected 2-AP chemical sensor, it may be predicted that it has high capacity of adsorption and active catalytic decomposition ability [67,68]. Therefore, the projected chemical sensor fabricated with active CuO-NiO NPs is a simple and reliable selective detection of 2-AP in aqueous medium by I-V method. A comparison of the CuO-NiO NPs/nafion/GCE chemical sensor analytical performances with similar work [69–72] of other group are represented in Table 1.

Table 1.

The comparison of analytic performance of aminophenol chemical sensor with various modified electrode by I–V method.

Modified electrode  DL (nM)  LDR (nM)  Sensitivity (μAμM−1cm−2Refs. 
Gd NPs-GO/GCE  93.0  400–50000  0.261×10−2  [69] 
NiO.CNT NCs/GCE  0.015  0.1–100000000  6.33×10−4  [70] 
DOM poly-Cys/GCE  8.0  20–20000  24.8×10−2  [71] 
RGO–TiN/GCE  13.0  50.0–520,000  13.04×10−3  [72] 
CuO-NiO NPs/GCE  0.05  0.1–10000000  20.2729×10−3  This work 

DL, Detection limit; LDR, Linear dynamic range; nM, Nanomole.

4The analysis of environmental real samples

The proposed chemical sensor CuO-NiO NPs/binder/GCE was successively employed to detect 2-AP in various real environmental samples to verify the applicability of this sensor in practical field. The above mentioned real samples were collect from different sources such as industrial effluent, extract from PC baby-bottle, PC water-bottle and PVC food-packaging bag. The results of the analysis are presented in Table 2 and seem to be quite satisfactory.

Table 2.

Measured concentration of the 2-AP analyte in real sample.

Sample  Added 2-AP concentration  Determined 2-AP concentrationa by CuO-NiO NPs/GCE  Recoveryb (%)  RSDc (%) (n=3) 
  0.01μM  0.0102μM  102.0  0.0
Industrial effluent  0.01μM  0.0102μM  102.0 
  0.01μM  0.0102μM  102.0 
Plastic baby  0.01μM  0.0096μM  96.0  0.60
Bottle  0.01μM  0.0095μM  95.0 
  0.01μM  0.0096μM  96.0 
Plastic water  0.01μM  0.0101μM  101.0  1.52
Bottle  0.01μM  0.0099μM  99.0 
  0.01μM  0.0102μM  102.0 
PVC food  0.01μM  0.0107μM  107.0  0.54
packaging bag  0.01μM  0.0107μM  107.0 
  0.01μM  0.0106μM  106.0 

Mean of three repeated determination (signal to noise ratio 3) with CuO-NiO NMs/binder/GCE.


Concentration of 2-AP determined/ Concentration of 2-AP taken.


Relative standard deviation value indicates precision among three repeated determinations.


A novel hetero dinuclear complex is synthesized and characterized in this work. The complex is used as precursor for synthesis of NiO-CuO system via heat treatment at 300 °C and 600 °C. The precursor as well as the calcination products are fully characterized using variable characterization techniques that includes FT-IR, TGA, XRD and SEM. IR and XRD, which confirms the chemical structures of mixed CuO-NiO nanocomposites and precursor 1 respectively. The IR spectrum of CuO-NiO gives beaks at 515, 475cm−1 assigned to the characteristic vibrations of Cu-O and Ni-O, respectively. The average size of CuO-NiO nano particles (NPs) obtained from Debye–Scherrer equation equal to 16.65nm. The obtained SEM results confirmed that average crystallite size is 20nm. For application, the selective 2- AP chemical sensor is developed based on CuO-NiO nanocomposites onto glassy carbon electrode with 5% nafion chemical binder. The analytical performances of this selective chemical sensor were measured and found outstanding results such as, as lowest detection limit (DL=50±2.5pM), large linear dynamic range (LDR=0.1nM-0.01M), higher sensitivity (20.2729μAmM−1cm-2), and short response time (14.0sec.). This work is introduced a well-organized technique for the development of selective chemical sensor with high efficiency in broad scale for the safety of health care and biomedical fields.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest. Also, we declare that if the article accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the written content of the publisher.


The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through General Research Project under grant number (G.R.P 352–40). Also, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), Chemistry Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is highly acknowledged for financial supports and research facilities.

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Journal of Materials Research and Technology

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