Journal of Materials Research and Technology Journal of Materials Research and Technology
J Mater Res Technol 2012;1:42-54 DOI: 10.1016/S2238-7854(12)70009-1
Fabrication of Metal and Alloy Components by Additive Manufacturing: Examples of 3D Materials Science
Lawrence E. Murr1,2,, , Edwin Martinez1,2, Krista N. Amato1,2, Sara M. Gaytan1,2, Jennifer Hernandez1,2, Diana A. Ramirez1,2, Patrick W. Shindo1,2, Frank Medina2, Ryan B. Wicker2
1 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 USA
2 W. M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 USA
Received 03 April 2012, Accepted 18 April 2012
Abstract
Objective

This paper provides a brief review of relatively new additive manufacturing technologies for the fabrication of unusual and complex metal and alloy products by laser and electron beam melting. A number of process features and product microstructures are illustrated utilizing 3D optical and transmission electron microscope image compositions representing examples of 3D materials science.

Methods

Processing methods involving electron beam melting (EBM) and a process referred to as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), often called selective laser melting (SLM) are described along with the use of light (optical) microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to elucidate microstructural phenomena.

Results

Examples of EBM and SLM studies are presented in 3D image compositions. These include EBM of Ti-6Al-4V, Cu, Co-base superalloy and Inconel 625; and SLM of 17-4 PH stainless steel, Inconel 718 and Inconel 625.

Conclusions

3D image compositions constituting 3D materials science provide effective visualization for directional solidification-related phenomena associated with the EBM and SLM fabrication of a range of metals and alloys, especially microstructures and microstructural architectures.

Key words
Laser and electron beam melting, 3D image compositions, Optical and electron microscopy, Metal and alloy fabrication, Microstructures
J Mater Res Technol 2012;1:42-54 DOI: 10.1016/S2238-7854(12)70009-1