Journal of Materials Research and Technology Journal of Materials Research and Technology
J Mater Res Technol 2013;2:60-7 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.03.012
Original Article
Fabrication characteristics and mechanical behaviour of rice husk ash – Alumina reinforced Al-Mg-Si alloy matrix hybrid composites
Keneth Kanayo Alanemea,, , Idris B. Akintundea, Peter Apata Olubambib, Tolulope M. Adewalec
a Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
b Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa
c School of Materials, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Received 29 October 2012, Accepted 26 November 2012
Abstract

The fabrication characteristics and mechanical behaviour of Al-Mg-Si alloy matrix composites reinforced with alumina (Al2O3) and rice husk ash (RHA, an agro-waste) was investigated. This was aimed at assessing the viability of developing high performance Al matrix composites at reduced cost. Al2O3 particulates added with 0, 2, 3, and 4 wt% RHA were utilized to prepare 10 wt% of the reinforcing phase with Al-Mg-Si alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Density measurement, estimated percent porosity, tensile testing, micro-hardness measurement, optical microscopy, and SEM examination were used to characterize the composites produced. The results show that the less dense Al-Mg-Si/RHA/Al2O3 hybrid composites have estimated percent porosity levels as low as the single Al2O3 reinforced grade (< 2.3% porosity). The hardness of the hybrid composites decreases slightly with increase in RHA content with a maximum reduction of less than 11% observed for the Al-4 wt% RHA-6wt% Al2O3 composition (in comparison with the Al-10 wt% Al2O3 single reinforced composition). Tensile strength reductions of 8% and 13%, and specific strengths which were 3.56% and 7.7% lower were respectively observed for the 3 wt% and 4 wt% RHA containing hybrid composites. The specific strength, percent elongation and fracture toughness of the 2 wt% RHA containing hybrid composite was however, higher than that of the single Al2O3 reinforced and other hybrid composite compositions worked on. RHA thus has great promise to serve as a complementing reinforcement for the development of low cost-high performance aluminum hybrid composites.

Keywords
Hybrid composites, Rice husk ash, Al-Mg-Si alloy, Stir casting, Mechanical properties, Microscopy
This article is only available in PDF
References
[1]
K.K. Alaneme,M.O. Bodunrin
Corrosion behaviour of alumina reinforced Al (6063) metal matrix composites
JMMCE., 10 (2011), pp. 1153-1165
[2]
M.K. Surappa
Aluminum matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities
Sadhana., 28 (2003), pp. 319-334
[3]
P. Rohatgi,B. Schultz
Light weight metal matrix composites – stretching the boundaries of metals
Materials Matters., 2 (2007), pp. 16-19
[4]
K.K. Alaneme
Influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the tensile behaviour and CNT evaluated fracture toughness of borax premixed SiCp reinforced aluminum (6063) composites
Int J Mech Mater Eng., 7 (2012), pp. 96-100
[5]
A. Macke,B.F. Schultz,P. Rohatgi
Metal matrix composites offer the automotive industry an opportunity to reduce vehicle weight, improve performance
Adv Mater Processes., 170 (2012), pp. 19-23
[6]
T.V. Christy,N. Murugan,S. Kumar
A comparative study on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al 6061 alloy and the MMC Al 6061/TiB2/12p
JMMCE., 9 (2010), pp. 57-65
[7]
D.B. Miracle
Metal matrix composites – from science to techno- logical significance
Compos Sci Technol., 65 (2005), pp. 526-540
[8]
S.B. Prabu,L. Karanamoorty,S. Kathiresan,B. Mohan
Influence of stirring speed and stirring time on distribution of particu- lates in cast metal matrix composite
J Mater Process Technol., 171 (2006), pp. 268-273
[9]
V.S. Aigbodion,S.B. Hassan,E.T. Dauda,R.A. Mohammed
Expe- rimental study of ageing behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg/bagasse ash particulate composites
Tribology in industry., 33 (2011), pp. 28-35
[10]
P.B. Madakson,D.S. Yawas,A. Apasi
Characterization of Coconut shell ash for potential utilization in metal matrix composites for automotive applications
IJEST., 4 (2012), pp. 1190-1198
[11]
O.A. Olugbenga,A.A. Akinwole
Characteristics of bamboo leaf ash stabilization on lateritic soil in highway construction
IJET., 2 (2010), pp. 212-219
[12]
S.D. Prasad,R.A. Krishna
Production and mechanical properties of A356.2/RHA composites
IJAST., 33 (2011), pp. 51-58
[13]
S.D. Prasad,R.A. Krishna
Tribological properties of A356.2/RHA composites
JMST., 28 (2012), pp. 367-372
[14]
H. Zuhailawati,P. Samayamutthirian,C.H. Mohd Haizu
Fabri- cation of low cost aluminum matrix composite reinforced with silica sand
J Phys Sci., 18 (2007), pp. 47-55
[15]
K.K. Alaneme,A.O. Aluko
Production and age-hardening behaviour of borax pre-mixed SiC reinforced Al-Mg-Si alloy composites developed by double stir casting technique
WIJE., 34 (2012), pp. 80-85
[16]
K.K. Alaneme
Mechanical behaviour of cold deformed and solution heat-treated alumina reinforced AA 6063 composites
J Eur Ceram Soc., 35 (2013), pp. 31-35
[17]
A STM E 8M: Standard test method for tension testing of metallic materials (Metric). Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Philadelphia; 1991.
[18]
K.K. Alaneme
Fracture toughness (K1C) evaluation for dual phase low alloy steels using circumferential notched tensile (CNT) specimens
Mat Res., 14 (2011), pp. 155-160
[19]
G.E. Dieter
Mechanical metallurgy
McGraw-Hill, (1988)
[20]
S.K. Nath,U.K. Das
Effect of microstructure and notches on the fracture toughness of medium carbon steel
JNAME., 3 (2006), pp. 15-22
[21]
M. Kok
Production and mechanical properties of Al2O3 particle reinforced 2024 aluminum composites
J Mater Process Technol., 16 (2005), pp. 381-387
[22]
T.H. Courtney
Mechanical behaviour of materials
2nd ed., Overseas Press, (2006)
[23]
K.K. Alaneme,A.O. Aluko
Fracture toughness (K1C) and tensile properties of as-cast and age-hardened aluminum (6063) – Silicon carbide particulate composites
Sci Iran, Trans A., 19 (2012), pp. 992-996
[24]
N. Chawla,Y. Shen
Mechanical behaviour of particle reinforced metal matrix composites
Adv Eng Mater., 3 (2001), pp. 357-370
[25]
M.T. Milan,P. Bowen
Tensile and fracture toughness properties of SiCp reinforced Al alloys: Effects of particle size, particle volume fraction and matrix strength
J Mater Eng Perform., 13 (2004), pp. 775-783
[26]
M.M. Ranjbaran
Low fracture toughness in Al 7191-20% SiCp aluminum matrix composite
Eur J Appl Eng Sci Res., 41 (2010), pp. 261-272
[27]
Bradt RC, Munz D, Sakai M, Schevchenko VY, White KW.eds.). Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 13 – Crack-Microstructure Interaction, R-Curve Behaviour, Environmental Effects in Fracture, and Standardization. New York: Springer; 2002.
Corresponding author. (Keneth Kanayo Alaneme kalanemek@yahoo.co.uk)
Copyright © 2013. Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association
J Mater Res Technol 2013;2:60-7 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.03.012