Journal of Materials Research and Technology Journal of Materials Research and Technology
Original Article
Design, simulation and implementation of a PID vector control for EHVPMSM for an automobile with hybrid technology
Adeyinka O.M. Adeoyea, Bankole I. Oladapoa,, , Adefemi A. Adekunleb, Ayamolowo J. Olademejic, Joseph F. Kayodea
a Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
b Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Oye-Ekiti State, Nigeria
c Electrical Computer Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Received 05 February 2017, Accepted 20 July 2017

This work proposes a Model design simulation and implementation of a novel engine of an Electric Hybrid Vehicle of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (EHVPMSM) based on field oriented vector control. The experimental analysis was carried out using: automotive motor control MTRCKTSPS5604P, 3-Phase PMSM coded of a single Motor Control Kit with MPC5604P MCU and simulation with Simulink. Therefore, the direct torque control can be obtained by adjusting the magnitude and phase angle of the stator flux linkage to match the vector torque required by the load as fast as possible. This eradicates the stress of charging the vehicle battery. It automatically charges when it is connected to the main supply of the EHVPMSM. The electromagnetic torque can be increased from 0Nm to 6.7Nm in approximately 340μs. The response of speed transient was from −2100rpm to +2100rpm in 100ms of 6.7Nm torque limit. This is a novel way of conserving the energy consumption in a vehicle, which conserves space and weight and minimizes cost as it is simply done with low-cost materials. In this research, a new mathematical model is proposed for the direct and quadrature axis of the current to control the speed mechanism for the engine. Computer simulation ensures experimental validation of the system with a percentage error of 4.5%. The methodology employed to control the system was with the use of various sensors and software controller, this can be easily implemented in industry and institutional laboratory of learning.

Permanent magnet machines, PID, EHVPMSM, Vector control, Hybrid vehicle
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Due to the greater environmental and social awareness of this age, the use of alternatives for the traction of vehicles has experienced a growth in past years. Along the same line, there are already many manufacturers that deal with one or more models of hybrid vehicles in the market [1,2]. These hybrid vehicles combine a conventional internal combustion engine with an electric machine. This technology has been adopted because of the problems of weight, cost, performance and infrastructure [2,3]. The main axis of this study is to determine or establish a type of engine together with a control strategy that adapts to the needs and requirements of the electric engine hybrid vehicle. In recent years, more efficient alternating machines have been considered, the continuous ones; which are used for hybrid vehicles and the electric ones of average and great power [3,4]. Within the AC motors, those that have higher performance in terms of robustness are synchronous motors such as those of permanent magnets, rotor winding or switched reluctance [5]. For this reason, the present study will deal with the synchronous rotor winding machine with protruding poles and DC rotor excitation and the Electric Hybrid Vehicle of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (EHVPMSM). The main difference is that in the case of the first machine, magnetic field is created in the rotor of the machine to the DC rotor excitation, which makes it fluctuate [6–8], while in the case of the novel EHVPMSM, the field created is constant as it is determined by the magnets mounted on the rotor and it is continuously constant. The control strategy used for both machines will be the vectorial control or field-oriented control (FOC) with a first stage in which the models will be implemented on Matlab/Simulink, and a subsequent second phase in which it is implemented on a configure automotive motor control MTRCKTSPS5604P and 3-Phase PMSM coded of a single Motor Control Kit with MPC5604P MCU. This device is mounted on a plate that forms part of a development kit and includes the studio software. The kit is designed for the control of motors with many blocks for the implementation of vector control as well as the generation of PWM pulses [8–10]. The use of vector control allows extrapolating the control technique of direct current motors to the field of the alternating motors; being able to decouple the mathematical model of the machine and control the components responsible for magnetic flow and drive torque independently. In this way, to control the composition of the pair, a control loop may be with a machine such as a WRSM machine [10–12]. There is a control measure on the permanent magnets, which is a result of the excitation current of the rotor. Hybrid vehicles that follow the ‘Hybrid Synergy Drive’ philosophy are the first in the world to rely on a fully active safety package electrical and electronic equipment, including power steering and the first braking by cable with a completely electrical system. ABS, EBD and VSC were also incorporated in it and ran with an electric circuit [10]. A central electronic brain coordinates these systems to create a perfect work together. This allows all active security systems and power steering to act as one in a dangerous situation. The synchronous motors are connected to the frequency of the source and the pole of the motor pair always rotating at the synchronous speed depending on the number of excited machines. The stator of these motors uses alternating current (AC) and the rotors are fed with direct current (DC) [11–13]. However, the rotor magnetic field in synchronous motors positioned in rotor's need for the second source when provided with permanent magnets and thus PMSMs are obtained. Any current in the motor rotor copper losses is not a big deal. Also, the magnetizing current, which is the component of the stator current, increases the power coefficient of the motor. Therefore, this smaller engine design had the same strength as other engines and higher efficiency. This means that a high power is a desirable feature for vehicle and aircraft technology. In many applications of high torque and low speed, the PMSM is preferred but present a particular disadvantage for speed ranges above the nominal speed [12,13]. The fixed flux imposed by the magnets in the air gap makes the speed increase, the voltage induced in the windings increases very high above those allowed by the machine itself and the converter. To avoid this phenomenon, the field must be weakened in the air gap for high operating ranges of rated speed [14,15]. Numerous methods of the weakening of the field have been researched to solve this problem.

Hassan et al., Liu and Zhu and Qiao et al. [11,16,17] investigate a new direct torque control of a sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor, which is based on a sliding method. The position and speed of the interior PMSM are calculated online based on active flux idea. In order to overcome large ripple content commonly found with direct torque, a torque/flux sliding mode controller was used.

Rong-Maw et al. and Guoyang et al. [18,19] introduce a robust PID control scheme for the PMSM using a genetic searching approach. A Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are powerful searching algorithms, which depend on natural genetics and mechanics of natural selection. They presents a mode switching control (MSC) system in discrete-time domain for precise and fast set-point tracking in servo systems dependent on control saturation of unknown disturbance.

Fayez and El-Sousy [20] adopt computed torque control for PMSM for an adaptive hybrid control system (AHCS) of a servo drive. The suggested AHCS in corporating an auxiliary controller, which depend on the sliding-mode control of a recurrent radial basis function network (RBFN).

Recently Mahdi et al. and Shriwastava et al. [2,9] proposed a sensorless PMSM drive based on direct power control method. In order to calculate the rotor's speed and position of PMSM, a strong sensorless strategy was developed according to artificial neural network to reduce the cost of the driving the machine and increase accuracy. Also, an implementation of three level diode-clamped multilevel inverter using IGBT's fed for PMSM drive was proposed. Carrier based space vector pulse width modulation technique was used for the pulses for the inverters.

In early 2017, Mahmoud et al. [1] presents a novel speed monitor established on fuzzy logic system for speed sensorless control for PMSM. The switch function in the common Sliding Method monitor is substituted for a rule based fuzzy logic system.

All these brought about the motivation in this paper for further study of PMSM. The objectives of this research are to use the Vector Control Technique to improve the sytem dynamic performance during parameter variation and the monitoring system which has high tracing performance. this is done by placing the stator current vector in a way that, the speeds above the nominal, a part of the flow associated with it is subtracted from the main flow imposed by the magnet maintaining the constant voltage in the terminals of the machine. Based on this technique, the selection of parameters is essential for extending power capacity above speed nominal. Also, we performed a comparative study between two possible solutions for the implementation of vector control over synchronous motors in a vehicles with hybrid technology for the permanent magnet motor and the winding rotor. This is to help achieve the best method to implement vector control on the EHVPMSM and the synchronous winding rotor using Simulink. These are check the speed and torque set points for the machines and perform of a technical-economic analysis on the systems.

2Continuous magnet synchronous motor direct torque control

The basic principle of direct torque control is stator magnetic field between flow and momentum reference and a real value depending on the difference, the appropriate stator voltage vectors are selected. Permanent magnet synchronous motor is used if the magnetic flux is constant. At the moment control width modulation (PWM) comparator the necessity of using the current control circuit arises, For this reason, permanent magnet synchronous motors direct torque control. PWM current control is less parameter dependence than torque control and fast moment response [21]. Driver control used in complex structures is independent of the method and the control variables, the system's parameter dependence reduction becomes mandatory for the applicability of the system income. For this reason, the three-phase equations of the electric machine's process intensity can be lifted off by lowering the two parts current control for high dynamic performance of rotor flux reference system [16,17,22]. In the study below, direct and indirect vector control motor equations were used in reference system and permanent magnet. The mathematical model of the synchronous motor is given.

3Theoretical equation of implementation for EHVPMSM

Stator magnetic flux vector, Ψ and the rotor magnetic flux vector, Ψ is as shown in Fig. 1. Also, the rotor flux (dq) and the stator flux (xy) reference systems. Stator and rotor magnetic with the angle δ between the wings is the load angle. Δ is a constant load and does not change at the moment. In this case, the flow also rotates synchronously [10,17]. However, at different loads, δ changes. Here, the change in the rotation speed or δ of the stator current can be controlled, the increase in the moment can be controlled.

Fig. 1.

Space vector for stator fluxes in synchronous different reference for the systems.

The electrical equations for the block from Fig. 1 can be defined in terms of flux partial derivatives as the following equations:

where Va, Vb, Vc are the voltages applied to the A, B, and C stator and ia, ib, ic are the stator currents in each of the three phase windings of the motor. Rs is the resistance of each of the stator, Ms is the stator–stator mutual inductance and δϕδia, δϕδib, ∂δϕδic are the partial derivatives of flux linkage with respect to stator current in each of the three windings, δϕδθr is the partial derivative of flux linkage with respect to rotor angle.

The following equations are the functional equations for the PID control and the limiters of the EHVPMSM which flow through the PMSM motor and the dynamometer:

The block can automatically calculate the torque matrix from the flux information provided; see Eqs. (4)–(8), this results in Eq. (9) after simulation on the PID controlling system

3.1Engine modelling and speed control for permanent magnet synchronous motor

The engine section is shown in Figs. 3 and 4, which show the different variables necessary for the mathematical model of the same mathematical equations used for the modelling of the motor, which are the classic ones of an asynchronous permanent magnet machine [19]. These, expressed directly in a rotor reference system which rotates at the speed of synchronism are as following:

The structural differences of permanent magnet synchronous motors, d and q axes have different inductance values, which can be express as the following equations. Combining the above equations result in Eqs. (12) and (13) which is express as:

For PMPM, the direct and quadrature components of the inductances of the system are equal in field of expression. That is Lsd=Lsd and isd=isq which makes Eq. (15) becomes Eq. (16), which is the developed mathematical model equation.

From the model Eq. (16), the torque producing is along the quadrature-axis and it is directly proportional to the current product along the quadrature-axis with respect to time [14,20]. For maximum efficiency to be reached, the torque per ampere relationship should be increasing along the axis. This can be achieved by setting the direct-axis current to a constant value at all times. The rotor has d and q axis of different inductance values. Given in Eq. (15), the moment equation can be expressed more simply [14]. The expression is given by Eq. (16), which is derived from Figs. 1–4, which is the expression of the transformation made by the load angle. The trigonometric expressions are given in Eq. (8) to also obtained Eq. (17).

from the equations above, Ψsd is the voltage on the d-axis, Ψsq is the voltage on the q axis, isd is the current on the d-axis, isq is the current on the q axis, Rs is the phase resistance of the stator windings, Lsd is the phase inductance of the stator windings, Usd is the electric speed of the rotor and ωr is the flow created by the permanent magnets of the machine [11–13]. It will help for engine modelling and speed control and also for mechanical control of the machine.

Fig. 2.

Block parameters that apply specified expression to input with a definition box.

Fig. 3.

Simulation model of the functional PID vector control EHVPMSM drive.

Fig. 4.

Simulation model of the functional PID speed control EHVPMSM drive.

3.2Flux Orientation Speed Control

The method chosen for speed control for Flux Orientation Speed Control (FOC) aims to control the flow magnetic torque and the torque developed by the motor, by controlling the components d and q of the stator currents. To achievethis, with the information of the stator currents and the rotor angle, you can control the flow through the air gap as well as the pair developed by the machine in a very effective way. The main advantages of this method are its rapid response to changes in the load or variations in the speed reference as well as its minimum ripple in the developed pair. Fig. 5 shows a schematic of the designed speed controller and the experimental setup in Fig. 6.

Fig. 5.

Schematic of the experimental setup of motor control algorithm of implemented drive for EHVPMSM.

Fig. 6.

Experimental setup of the developed EHVPMSM.


The implementation of the EHVPMSM is carried out using the synchronous 6-pole, 2kW motor, three-phase inverter, voltage, current and rotor angle sensors and interface between physical system and computer: DSpace 1103 and various protection systems like fuses and PWM signal switches. All these equipment were calibrated and tested to check their precision and accuracy. The results obtained in these tests were highly reliable and favours the idea in view. Fig. 7 shows a general scheme of the assembly and the outline of the points of measurement of currents and voltages.

Fig. 7.

Simulink co-simulation architecture for the speed controls of measurements of currents and voltages the simulation configuration of vector control of EHVPMSM of the drive assembly.

In this scheme, the applied control can be appreciated. Firstly, the reference to the actual engine speed; the error obtained was entered in a PI (proportional-integral) regulator from which we obtained the pair required because we had to develop the engine to get the required speed. Applying Eq. (13), this pair becomes the reference of the q component of the current. On the other hand, the component d of the current, which is responsible for the level of flow in the air gap, was set to zero. This was because we had to work in a range of velocities between zero and the nominal machine speed, therefore, it is not necessary to weaken the magnetic flux to work at speeds higher than nominal. Once both current references have been obtained, they will be compared with their measured values. Again, the errors will be introduced in two regulators, the voltage was then returned to the reference voltage. Finally, to close the loop, we needed to measure the current flowing through the three-phase (3-phase) windings and the rotor angle. For this purpose, the Flux Oriented Control (FOC) was chosen. The electric machine designed for the research is an electrical hybrid vehicle of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (EHVPMSM) of 2kW, 4 poles and smooth rotor. The peculiarity of this engine is its double stator winding. This allows through a series of relays capable of changing the electrical configuration of the windings, connect both stator winding as a single for the pull mode and separate them into two isolated windings (as a transformer) in charging mode. For this project, they were connected to a single winding in the form of a star, since its use only requires the traction mode.

5Results5.1Simulation and experimental results of torque control of EHVPMSM

Sampling results from simulation are shown in Fig. 8 for 100μs of flux reference 0.533Wb. For the moment at a reference, time of 0.03s at 2Nm torque and move to 0.09s at the same torque 2Nm, the step change from −3Nm to 3Nm. The engine made was a trimmed Siemens brand rotor with ferrite magnets, 1.5kW, 4 poles, 50Hz, 380V nominal voltage and 3.2A nominal current label with permanent magnet synchronous motors. In Fig. 9 the stator flow response is approximately 0.534–0.522Wb. Flux reference value 0.533Wb is within this range. In Fig. 10, the vector orbit of the magnetic flux vectors in the form of the flux given in Fig. 11 components seems to be compatible with each other. Figs. 8 and 9 is formed using the de-axial transformation d, q, I and d, q, V graphics. Accordingly, the electromagnetic moment of component q has no contribution to the production and to the d-axis of the moment component current. In Fig. 9, the axis transformation using d, q, V graphics have been obtained. Figs. 9 and 10, it is seen in the torque response of the torque reference closed. In Fig. 11, a change chart from the square was given. The simulations were performed using a Matlab software. In a file, Matlab data were saved for the engine and controllers and in Simulink engine, inverter, PWM pulse generation and a three-phase reference system to rotate once and vice versa. For the experiment, two steps were generated in the reference speed with the object to see the dynamic response of the various electrical and mechanical variables of the engine. Fig. 8 shows the motor response to the speed steps. Fig. 10 shows the electrical torque developed by the machine during the simulation. Figs. 9 and 11 show the stator currents during the simulation and a zoom at the time of the step. As can be seen in the graphs, the control system has an “answer fast and accurate” dynamics (Figs. 12–14).

Fig. 8.

Speed and vector of the permanent magnet motor and the winding rotor.

Fig. 9.

Stator currents at start of machine permanent magnet winding rotor of micro-controller of the three function equation of EHVPMSM.

Fig. 10.

Tracking of the permanent magnet motor and the winding rotor technique for EHVPMSM.

Fig. 11.

Three-phase stator current.

Fig. 12.

stator current of speed from signal generator.

Fig. 13.

Response to the first speed step of micro-controller permanent magnet motor.

Fig. 14.

Response to the second speed step.

Current and torque error measurement and calculation results are in Table 1, this was obtained from the simulation results. The simulated idle work speed values for all other loaded operating conditions; for the speed error, since it is included in the obtained speed range, no separate columns have been created. The results of the experiment and simulation in Table 1 show the moment, current and speed separately. In simulation, the desired moment value to produce according to the hysteresis band of the driver, ±3.3% (±0.02Nm) within the limits. However, from simulation results, the upper and lower limits of the curves should be perceived as the average. The speed results obtained from the simulation are obtained; the speed range from 4010rpm to 4060rpm. The only difference is that the engine is idle for 9m/s difference in case of operation. This is 0.3% error and its negligible. The motor's nominal power when comparing the current results are close to each other. For example, 0.62Nm simulation results for torque value the motor phase current is 1.16A and 1.19A in the simulation result in Table 1. The difference of 0.01A is 0.7%, which are with the above-mentioned assumptions. In areas near empty work, there is a difference of 0.13A between the results. These differences are due to the measuring instruments. Because the measured values are measured by the measuring instrument is too far from the maximum measurement value, the measurement was made at a level of 10A, a lower measurement stage is 0.2A. Therefore, the results of sensitive measurements in it is open, a maximum of 5.4A specified on the motor nameplate during the simulations of the current value the entire load is also important that they are not exceeded in the options (Table 2).

Table 1.

Values of the parameters of the Electric Hybrid Vehicle of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (EHVPMSM) considered in the simulations.

Item  Quantity and unit 
Rated voltage (V460
Power supply (W1.1kW 
Rated frequency (f)  50Hz 
Rated torque (Tr15Nm 
Stator winding resistance (Rw6.1Ω 
Rotor resistance (Rr6.01Ω 
Inductance in the directional axis (Ld4.2mH 
Inductance in the quadrature axis (Lq1.35mH 
Mutual inductance (Lm234mH 
Moment of inertial (J0.012kgm2 
Rotor magnetic flux linkage (RMFL) (Ψ0.21wb 
Number of pole (Pn4 pair 
Table 2.

Experimental and simulation results.

Load number  Simulation resultsExperiment resultsCalculated momentum result (Nm)  Percentage error of current (%) 
  Momentum (Nm)  Speed (m/s)  Current (A)  Temperature (°C)  Current (A)  Speed (m/s)     
0.07  4062  0.33  43  0.35  4032  0.07  5.70 
0.10  4058  0.35  44  0.38  4032  0.10  7.89 
0.14  4054  0.38  44  0.40  4032  0.14  5.00 
0.21  4051  0.46  45  0.51  4032  0.21  9.80 
0.23  4049  0.56  46  0.60  4032  0.23  6.67 
0.24  4045  0.59  46  0.62  4032  0.24  4.80 
0.25  4042  0.64  47  0.67  4032  0.25  4.50 
0.27  4040  0.70  47  0.71  4032  0.27  1.40 
0.30  4037  0.74  47  0.78  4032  0.30  5.10 
10  0.34  4033  0.79  48  0.81  4032  0.34  2.40 
11  0.37  4030  0.82  48  0.86  4032  0.37  4.65 
12  0.39  4028  0.89  49  0.91  4032  0.39  2.19 
12  0.42  4025  0.98  49  1.00  4032  0.42  2.00 
13  0.47  4024  1.05  50  1.09  4032  0.47  3.67 
14  0.52  4022  1.16  51  1.19  4032  0.52  2.52 
Ave. % total                4.546 

In this study, we have been able to establish and investigate direct magnetic synchronous motors moment control with a simulation Simulink/ModelSim was used and experimental validation. The results were compared and a negligible percentage error was obtained. The following conclusion can be drawn from the research work:

  • 1.

    A design simulation and implementation of a novel engine of an Electric Hybrid Vehicle of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (EHVPMSM) based on field oriented vector control with PID control is proposed.

  • 2.

    A direct torque control was obtained by adjusting the magnitude and phase angle of the stator flux linkage to match the vector torque required by the load as fast as possible.

  • 3.

    A new mathematical model was developed for the direct-axis and quadrature-axis of the current to control the speed mechanism for the engine.

  • 4.

    The battery of the vehicle was charged when connected to the main supply of the EHVPMSM which eliminates the need for another charging mechanism.

  • 5.

    The electromagnetic torque of 6.7Nm was obtained as the maximum torque in 340μs. The response of speed transient from −2100rpm to +2100rpm in 100ms of 6.7Nm torque limit was obtained.

  • 6.

    A novel way of conserving the energy consumption in a vehicle, which conserves space and weight is simple and reduces cost for industrial application and student learning.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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ISSN: 2214-2096
Corresponding author. (Bankole I. Oladapo
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