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Vol. 8. Issue 5.
Pages 4915-4923 (September - October 2019)
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Vol. 8. Issue 5.
Pages 4915-4923 (September - October 2019)
Review Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.06.017
Open Access
Reduction of Fe2O3 content of foyaite by flotation and magnetic separation for ceramics production
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Juliana Costa Silvaa, Carina Ulsenb, Maurício Guimarães Bergermanc, Daniela Gomes Hortaa,
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daniela.horta@unifal-mg.edu.br

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a Federal University of Alfenas, Department of Mining Engineering, Rod. José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267 km 533, 37715-400, Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
b University of São Paulo, Department of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Technological Characterization Laboratory (LCT-USP), Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2373 — Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-030, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
c University of São Paulo, Department of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Laboratory of Mineral Processing (LTM-USP), Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2373 — Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-030, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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Table 1. Foyaite chemical composition determined by XRF.
Table 2. Semiquantitative analysis by SEM-EDS.
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Abstract

Feldspars are used as a fluxing agent in ceramics and glass production. However, the presence of iron-bearing minerals reduces whiteness of the ceramics. The objective of this work was to decrease the Fe2O3 content of a foyaite to <1% by flotation and magnetic separation, individually or combined, to make the sample suitable for white ceramics manufacture. The sample was prepared regarding its particle size distribution, characterised, and submitted to concentration experiments. Flotation was arried out to investigate promising anionic collectors and the most suitable conditions of dosage and pH. Wet magnetic separation was used in several stages, increasing the magnetic field. Lastly, magnetic separation was applied to the concentrate of the most efficient flotation test. Technological characterisation showed that the foyaite sample displays 3.2% Fe2O3 from pyroxene/amphibole. The most efficient flotation condition was the reverse flotation of iron-bearing minerals with alkyl sulphate as collector under 400 g t−1 at pH 4. The desired specification was reached after three cleaner stages, yielding a concentrate with 0.92% Fe2O3 and 74.6 wt.% recovery. By magnetic separation, the Fe2O3 content was reduced to 0.8% with 70.6 wt.% recovery, after five stages of concentration with the magnetic field varying from 0.78 to 1.12 T. The most efficient combined circuit comprised three stages of flotation followed by one stage of magnetic separation at 0.78 T. The concentrate presented 0.55% Fe2O3 and 71.2 wt.% recovery.

Keywords:
Flotation
Foyaite
Magnetic separation
White ceramic
Full Text
1Introduction

Feldspars are sodium, potassium, and calcium aluminosilicates that constitute 60% of the Earth’s crust [1]. Commercial feldspars are albite (NaAlSi3O8), orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), microcline (KAlSi3O8), and anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) [2]. They are applied as a fluxing agent, lowering the melting temperature of the mixture, in ceramics and glass production. However, the presence of iron and titanium-bearing minerals is responsible for a dark colour in fired products [1,2].

In Italy, Turkey, and China, flotation is used to concentrate feldspars [3–6]. Traditionally, reverse flotation of mica and other silicates takes place first using amines as collectors at pH 2.5–3.5, then iron and titanium-bearing minerals are floated with anionic collectors at pH 3–4 [2–4]. The anionic collectors that have been used are fatty acids, alkyl sulphonates, sulphates, succinamates, sarcosines, and hydroxamates [7–12].

Karagüzel [11] obtained an albite concentrate assaying 0.33% Fe2O3+TiO2 and 11.07% Na2O + K2O from a slime feed consisting of 1.06% Fe2O3+TiO2 and 10.36% Na2O + K2O by using dissolved air flotation and fatty acid as collector. Abdel-Khalek et al. [7], by using a mixture of dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid, rice bran oil, and kerosene, were able to reduce the Fe2O3 content of an Egyptian feldspar from 0.53 to 0.1%.

It is also possible to directly float feldspars from silicates like quartz using cationic collectors if the feldspars are activated by hydrofluoric acid (HF). However, environmental limitations to the use of HF have motivated research about non-fluoride processes to separate feldspars and quartz [6,13,14].

The combination of flotation and magnetic separation has been used to remove iron/titanium-bearing particles from feldspars [15,16]. Burat et al. [15] found that flotation followed by dry magnetic separation was suitable to reduce the Fe2O3 content of a nepheline syenite ore from 0.19 to 0.09%. Silva et al. [16] used magnetic separation after flotation to reduce the Fe2O3 grade of a Brazilian foyaite from 3.14 to 0.61–0.58%. These works, however, did not evaluate the influence of concentration parameters that could improve the concentrate quality, such as dosage of reagents or pH on flotation and magnetic field on magnetic separation.

In Brazil, only high-grade feldspars are applied in ceramics and glass production since concentration is not a common practice [17]. However, the exhaustion of deposits containing low iron/titanium content demands the development of concentration routes. The potassic rock deposits in Poços de Caldas, for example, display Fe2O3 content ranging from 2 to 6% [18]. The Poços de Caldas alkaline massif (800 km2) comprises foyaite (plutonic) and tinguaite (subvolcanic) with the presence of phonolite, leucitite, alkaline lavas, tuff, agglomerates, and volcanic gaps. Foyaite is a textural variety of nepheline syenite that occurs in the Poços de Caldas massif. The predominant minerals are anorthoclase, nepheline, aegirine, and sanidine, and as accessories there are mainly found magnetite, fluorite, zirconite, and titanite [18,19].

The objective of this work was to use flotation and magnetic separation, individually and combined, to reduce the Fe2O3 content of a foyaite sample from Poços de Caldas to <1% [20]. The tested techniques applied separately or combined were able to meet the desired specification.

2Materials and methods

The Mineração Curimbaba company supplied 100 kg (<149 µm) of foyaite that was collected to ensure it represents the currently mined area. The sample was prepared, characterised, and submitted to concentration experiments (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.

Flowchart of experiments.

(0.15MB).
2.1Sample preparation

The material was homogenised and split in 2 kg aliquots for the removal of slimes (<44 µm) by siphoning. Representative aliquots were mixed with water (25% solids), stirred (23.3 s−1), and the pH was adjusted to 10.5 with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 10 wt.% solution. Then, the pulp was left to sedimentation and siphoned. The sedimentation times of 1, 2, and 5 min were tested to determine the period enough to guarantee that 90% of the slimes had been removed. This time (2 min) was applied to siphon the whole sample.

After that, the material was homogenised and split in 400 g aliquots to feed the concentration experiments. A head sample was taken for characterisation.

2.2Characterisation

The sample chemical composition was assessed by quantitative XRF analysis (Zetium spectrometer, PANalytical) in fused beads. Loss on ignition (LOI) was assayed at 1020 °C for 2 h and represents the weight loss at a selected temperature. The volatile materials lost usually consist of combined water from minerals (hydrates and hydroxy-compounds) and carbon dioxide from carbonates. Mineralogical composition was evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD — X’Pert PRO, PANalytical with X’Celerator detector) on ground samples with backload hand mount to minimise preferential orientation. The identification of the crystalline phases was performed by comparing the XRD pattern to the databases of the International Centre for Diffraction Data; semiquantitative mineralogical composition was assessed by Referent Intensity Ratio (RIR) method combined with the chemical composition. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) were carried out in selected fractions for evaluating the particle composition. The granulometric distribution was determined by wet sieving at 600, 500, 300, 212, 150, 106, 75, and 45 µm.

2.3Flotation

Flotation tests comprised reverse flotation (flotation cell CFB-1000 EEPN from CDC) of iron-bearing minerals with anionic collectors since those minerals are present in lower content compared to feldspars [2]. The flotation experiments started by mixing 400 g of foyaite sample with 500 ml of distilled water (50 wt.%). The pH was adjusted with sulphuric acid (H2SO4 10 wt.%), and conditioning with collector took place for 4 min and 2 min in the rougher and cleaner stages, respectively. After that, conditioning with pine oil (frother) was conducted for 2 min at 147 g t−1 and 73.5 g t−1 in the rougher and cleaner stages, respectively.

The first set of flotation experiments was conducted with different anionic collectors comprising the fatty acids RADIACID (Oleon), LUPROMIN (BASF), FLOTIGAM 5806 (Clariant), KORTACID 0810 (Oleon), SYLFAT FA-1 SPECIAL (Arizona Chemical), the alkyl sulphate MDB 908 (AkzoNobel), and the sulphonate MDB 1425 (AkzoNobel). The experiments were performed with the rougher dosage of 400 g t−1 at pH 4. Two cleaner stages were carried out using half of the collector dosage applied at the rougher stage. The flotation tests displaying higher Fe2O3 reduction with higher concentrate mass recovery were considered to yield the most suitable concentration performance.

Collectors that yielded the most promising results in the first set of flotation experiments were applied in the second set that was carried out under different rougher dosages (200, 400, and 600 g t−1). Then, the most suitable dosage was used in experiments at pH 3–5.

To evaluate the repeatability of the flotation tests, the experiment using alkyl sulphate as collector at 400 g t−1 and pH 4 was repeated four times. Finally, the influence of the number of cleaner stages was evaluated by applying the latter condition in two experiments carried out with four cleaner stages.

2.4Magnetic separation

The foyaite samples were submitted to magnetic separation in a Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separator (WHIMS, Inbras-Eriez), using the magnetic fields of 0.78, 0.93, 1.07, 1.14, 12.5, and 1.22 T. Approximately 50 g of material was added to the magnetic separator in each pass, until all the required material was processed. The magnetic product was separated for chemical analysis, and the non-magnetic product passed through again at the higher field. Magnetic separation tests were applied to the head sample (without previous flotation) and to the flotation concentrates obtained after two and four cleaner stages.

3Results and discussion3.1Characterisation

The foyaite chemical composition is shown in Table 1, and the mineralogical composition is shown in Fig. 2.

Table 1.

Foyaite chemical composition determined by XRF.

Species  SiO2  TiO2  Fe2O3  K2Al2O3  CaO  MnO  MgO  Na2LOI 
Content (%)  53.9  0.37  3.47  8.45  21.5  0.92  0.19  0.27  8.54  1.58 
STD  1.20  0.02  0.26  0.04  0.35  0.01  0.01  0.05  0.17  0.06 
Fig. 2.

X-ray diffractogram of the foyaite sample.

(0.09MB).

The sample comprises different aluminium silicates as suggested by the high grades of SiO2 (53.9%) and Al2O3 (21.5%), mostly sodium and potassium feldspars [(Na, K), Al, Si, O)] (microcline/orthoclase and albite/anorthite), and feldspathoids (nepheline, sodalite [Na, K, Al, Si, O], confirmed by XRD and associated to the content of K2O (8.5%) and Na2O (8.3%). The content of feldspar and feldspathoid is around 85%, estimated by semiquantitative analysis from XRD combined with the chemical composition; as minor minerals, pyroxene-amphibole (7–10%, mainly aegirine) and analcime (5–7%) were identified.

Considering the desired application of the studied material, the chemical analysis indicates that concentration is indeed required because the foyaite does not meet the company specification for white ceramics (Fe2O3 < 1%) since the Fe2O3 content is 3.47% (Table 1). The loss on ignition was 1.58% and can be accounted for mainly by analcime and by amphibole or minerals that could not be identified by XRD due to very low concentrations.

In Fig. 3, the general aspect of the foyaite sample highlighting the iron occurrence (EDS analysis) in pyroxene/amphibole minerals (in red colour) is shown. Details of some particles were taken to evaluate the content of Fe in minerals; semiquantitative analysis (Table 2) demonstrates that Fe occurs in different grades with a high variability (from 0.8 to 39%) in bearing minerals. Rare earth elements were also identified.

Fig. 3.

SEM images indicating spots of EDS analysis.

(0.51MB).
Table 2.

Semiquantitative analysis by SEM-EDS.

Phase  Na  Si  Ca  Fe  Al  Cl 
  13.1  39.6    7.7  39.5     
41.7    31.7  13.2    1.2  12.2   
39.8  13.6  19.2  6.6    1.1  19.7   
37.3  10.3  25.8    4.9  20.8    0.9 
36.0  20.9  16.2      0.8  18.4  7.6 
  Na  Si  Ca  Fe  Mn  Mg  Ti  Zr 
28.3  9.8  15.9    23.0    2.0    7.2  13.9 
35.4  3.9  16.6  1.9  1.3  4.3  23.6  0.8  7.6  2.0 
  Ca  Sr  La  Ce  Pr  Nd 
28.5    3.7  25.0  14.0  21.4  2.8  4.6 
  47.2  52.8           
10  50.6    49.4           

According to the granulometric distribution (Fig. 4), the foyaite sample presents 90% of the material below 145 µm and 100% greater than 30 µm, which is suitable to allow concentration by flotation or magnetic separation.

Fig. 4.

Granulometric distribution of the foyaite sample.

(0.1MB).
3.2Flotation

In Fig. 5, the flotation performance of experiments conducted with different commercial reagents is illustrated. Since the flotation result is represented by concentrate mass recovery (wt.%) as a function of Fe2O3 content (Fig. 5), the most effective collectors are indicated by the red circle in the graph.

Fig. 5.

Mass recovery (wt.%) versus Fe2O3 content for flotation tests under: rougher collector dosage = 400 g t−1, cleaner collector dosage = 200 g t−1, and pH = 4.

(0.15MB).

Alkyl sulphate (MDB 908) and sulphonate (MDB 1425) yielded the most satisfactory flotation performance because the Fe2O3 content of the concentrate is close to the specification (1%) and the recovery is greater than 65 wt.%. Therefore, these reagents were selected to be applied in additional experiments for evaluating the influence of collector dosage and pH.

The RADIACID fatty acid was also selected because, despite the low recovery, it is the only collector capable of reducing the Fe2O3 content to <1%. The other fatty acids can be considered inadequate, as the Fe2O3 content of the concentrates is much higher than the specification (Fig. 5). Although the flotation of iron-bearing minerals with fatty acids at low pH was reported in the literature [21], the lower flotation performance of those reagents (Fig. 5) could be related to the surfactant speciation. At pH < pKa, the collector is predominantly in the acidic form (RCOOH) and should not adsorb on iron-bearing minerals if we consider this interaction to be physical.

In Fig. 6, the flotation outcome of experiments accomplished at different dosages and values of pH is presented. The dosage of 400 g t−1 is the most efficient for the objective of reducing the Fe2O3 content using alkyl sulphate (1.18%) and fatty acid (0.82%). At a lower dosage (200 g t−1), the amount of collector is likely insufficient to remove all iron-bearing particles, while at 600 g t−1 the flotation froth could be entraining feldspar particles, which causes an increase in the Fe2O3 grade. In contrast, the Fe2O3 grade decreases with the increase of the sulphonate dosage from 200 to 600 g t−1, indicating that greater sulphonate dosages could yield cleaner concentrates. However, the recovery would be reduced below 60% (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6.

Fe2O3 content and mass recovery (wt.%) under different collector dosages (at pH 4) and values of pH (at 400 g t−1).

(0.23MB).

While the fatty acid leads to the highest removal of iron-bearing minerals, the mass recovery is very low (<30%). The recoveries corresponding to alkyl sulphate and sulphonate are very similar, and alkyl sulphate leads to the highest removal of Fe2O3. Therefore, the latter reagent can be considered the most effective collector (Fig. 6).

Regarding the effect of pH, at pH 3 none of the reagents was successful in removing iron-bearing minerals from the foyaite, since the Fe2O3 content of all concentrates is higher than 2.5%. When the pH increases from 3 to 4, the performance of all tested reagents enhances, as the reduction of Fe2O3 is more prominent. The decrease in Fe2O3 content is, as is likely to happen, followed by a decrease in mass recovery. However, this value is much smaller for the fatty acid (<25 wt.%) than for alkyl sulphate or sulphonate (70 and 80 wt.%, respectively) (Fig. 6).

The increase of pH from 4 to 5 causes a decrease in the fatty acid performance as the Fe2O3 grade increases to 2.92%. In addition, the Fe2O3 grade slightly reduces for alkyl sulphate and sulphonate. However, there is a significant mass recovery decrease, which makes pH 5 not optimal for the foyaite concentration (Fig. 6).

The influence of pH on flotation performance agrees with results reported in the literature [8,22]. Bayraktar et al. [8], for instance, found that pH 4 was the most efficient condition (pH ranging from 3 to 7) to increase the whiteness of a Na-feldspar using sulphonate (750 g t−1) as collector. El-Rehiem and El-Rahman [22] reported a reduction of TiO2+Fe2O3 content from pH 4 to 6 under the same conditions of collector and dosage. However, Gulsoy et al. [23] observed that the TiO2+Fe2O3 content decreased by increasing pH from 4 to 5.5 and kept constant up to pH 7.5 in the flotation of Na-feldspar with sodium oleate (2000 g t−1), which contrasts with the findings of our study (Fig. 6).

The flotation condition that resulted in the most satisfactory performance is using alkyl sulphate as collector at 400 g t−1 and pH 4. The concentrate shows 1.18% Fe2O3 and 76.5 wt.% mass recovery. This experiment was repeated yielding a concentrate with 1.19 ± 0.04% Fe2O3 and 78 ± 3.81% recovery, indicating that the repeatability of the flotation experiments was satisfactory.

3.3Flotation and magnetic separation

In Fig. 7, the flotation and magnetic separation, individually applied, are compared (A), and the performance of a combined concentration route in which magnetic separation was fed with the concentrates of the second and fourth flotation cleaners is presented (B). In flotation, the most significant Fe2O3 reduction takes place in the rougher concentrate (from 2.52 to 1.78%). The amount of iron-bearing minerals continues reducing until the fourth cleaner stage in which the Fe2O3 content is 0.74%. However, the third cleaner is enough to achieve the desired specification (<1%), since the Fe2O3 content is 0.92%, with a suitable mass recovery, 74.6 wt.% (Fig. 7A).

Fig. 7.

Mass recovery (wt.%) versus Fe2O3 content for (A) flotation with sulphonate, under 400 g t−1 at pH 4 after four cleaner stages compared to magnetic separation under different magnetic fields and (B) magnetic separation under different magnetic fields applied to the flotation concentrates.

(0.28MB).

Regarding the magnetic separation, there is a linear variation of recovery with Fe2O3 content until the Fe2O3 grade of 0.8% with 70.6% recovery in the final concentrate (Fig. 7A). Similarly, El-Rehiem and El-Rahman [22] reported that the removal of colouring material increased by increasing the magnetic field intensity using dry magnetic separation; the Fe2O3 content decreased from 1.85 to 0.2% while the TiO2 decreased from 0.35 to 0.03%.

It is evident that both techniques, flotation and magnetic separation, show similar results regarding reducing the Fe2O3 content of the foyaite sample (Fig. 7A). Both, when independently applied, can reach the desired specification for white ceramics production (<1% Fe2O3) with mass recovery of around 70 wt.%. In addition, the Fe2O3 grade keeps reducing along the cleaning stages for both concentration techniques, indicating that a higher number of cleaner stages could yield concentrates that fit the specification for glass production (<0.1% Fe2O3).

Regarding the combined route (Fig. 7B), the first step of magnetic separation under the lowest magnetic field (0.78 T) yields the greatest reduction of Fe2O3 content, compared to the subsequent steps, when this technique was applied to both the second (from 0.77 to 0.56%) and fourth (from 1.19 to 0.55%) cleaner concentrates.

It must be highlighted that the concentrate of the first step of magnetic separation displays the same characteristics (0.55–0.56% of Fe2O3 and 71.2–71.3 wt.% of recovery) regardless of the feed (second or fourth cleaner concentrate). Therefore, it is surely economically profitable to not perform flotation stages after the second cleaner in case of using a combined concentration route including flotation and magnetic separation.

The subsequent four steps of magnetic separation (magnetic fields of 0.93, 1.07, 1.14, and 1.22 T) yield a final concentrate with ˜0.4% Fe2O3 and 56 wt.% mass recovery, regardless of the feed. Since the Fe2O3 reduction is low (0.55–0.4%) followed by a significant reduction in mass recovery (71–56%), the second and subsequent steps of magnetic separation do not improve the concentration result (Fig. 7B). Therefore, the most satisfactory combined route is flotation comprising rougher and two cleaner stages followed by one step of magnetic separation at low field (0.78 T).

4Conclusions

Flotation and magnetic separation, individually applied or combined, were able to make the foyaite suitable for white ceramics production (Fe2O3 < 1%).

Fatty acid, sulphonate, and alkyl sulphate were suitable reagents for being used as collectors to the direct flotation of iron-bearing minerals. The most suitable flotation condition was using alkyl sulphate as collector under 400 g t−1 at pH 4. When it consists of one rougher followed by three cleaner stages, the final concentrate presented Fe2O3 content of 0.92% with a reasonable recovery (74.6 wt.%).

Magnetic separation individually applied reduced the Fe2O3 content to 0.8% with 70.6 wt.% recovery, after five stages of concentration with magnetic field varying from 0.78 to 1.12 T.

The combined route composed of flotation followed by magnetic separation yielded a concentrate with 0.55% Fe2O3 and 71.2 wt.% recovery, after the first stage of magnetic separation (0.78 T), regardless of the magnetic separation being applied to the second or fourth cleaner concentrates. So, the most satisfactory combined concentration route consisted of three stages of flotation (rougher and two cleaner stages) followed by one stage of magnetic separation.

Therefore, the studied foyaite, that has been applied in the construction industry, might be used for white ceramics production, after one of the proposed concentration routes is implemented to the mineral processing of this rock.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Mineração Curimbaba that supplied the sample and conducted the XRF analysis; Laboratory of Mineral Processing (LTM-USP) and Technological Characterization Laboratory (LCT-USP) of the University of São Paulo in which the magnetic separation experiments SEM analysis were conducted; Juliana Livi Antoniassi for conducting SEM analysis; commercial reagent suppliers Oleon, BASF, Clariant, Arizona Chemical, and Nouryon; FAPEMIG for the scholarship offered to the first author.

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Miner Process Extr Metall, 113 (2004), pp. 139-144

Juliana Costa Silva: Current position: Undergrad student at Federal University of Alfenas, Trainee at CBA (Brazilian Company of Aluminum); Lattes curriculum link:http://lattes.cnpq.br/4633996013883085.

Carina Ulsen: Current position: Professor at University of São Paulo; PhD: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 2006–2011; Master’s degree: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 2005–2006; Bachelor’s degree: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 2000–2004; Lattes curriculum link:http://lattes.cnpq.br/6938887227461878; Published papers: 1. Campos, V. P. P.; Labat, G. A. A.; Ulsen, C.; Silva, G. F. B. Lenz E. Development of metakaolin and geopolymer proppants with nanocarbon materials. Cerâmica, v. 65, p. 92-98, 2019; 2. Arismendi, F.; Jhonatan J.; Ferrari, J. V.; Michelon, M.; Ulsen, C. Construction of synthetic carbonate plugs: A review and some recent developments. Oil & Gas Science and Technology Revue d IFP Energies nouvelles, v. 74, p. 29, 2019; 3. Ulsen, C.; Tseng, E.; Angulo, S. C.; Landmann, M.; Contessotto, R.; Balbo, J. T.; Kahn, H. Concrete aggregates properties crushed by jaw and impact secondary crushing. Journal of Materials Research and Technology-JMR&T, v. 9, p. 103-111, 2018; 4. Korf, E. P.; Prietto, P. D. M.; Silveira, A. A.; Ulsen, C.; Bragagnolo, L. Porosity Changes of Compacted Soil Percolated with Acidic Leachate. SOILS & ROCKS, v. 41, p. 369-377, 2018; 5. Costa, F. R.; Nery, G. P.; Ulsen, C.; Uliana, D.; Contessotto, R.; Tassinari, M. M. M. L.; Kahn, H. Caracterização das formas de ocorrência e associações de ouro por análise de imagens quantitativa. Tecnologia Em Metalurgia, Materiais E Mineração (IMPRESSO), v. 14, p. 175-182, 2017; 6. Gomes, P.C.C.; Ulsen, C.; Pereira, F.A.; Quattrone, M.; Angulo, S.C. Comminution and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates. Waste Management (Elmsford), v. 008, p. 007, 2015; 7. Hawlitschek, G.; Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Masini, E. A.; Tocchini, M. Análise de imagens dinâmica - caracterização da distribuição de tamanho e forma de partículas. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 22-29, 2015; 8. Palombo, L.; Ulsen, C.; Uliana, D.; Costa, F. R.; Yamamoto, M.; Kahn, H. Caracterização de rochas reservatório por microtomografia de raios x. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 5, p. 65-72, 2015; 9. Costa, F. R.; Uliana, D.; Nery, G. P.; Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H. Aplicação da análise de imagem automatizada na acessibilidade dos grãos de ouro. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 7, p. 12-18, 2015; 10. Nery, G. P.; Ulsen, C.; Uliana, D.; Costa, F. R.; Tassinari, M. M. M. L.; Kahn, H. Caracterização tecnológica de minério aurífero sulfetado com material carbonoso. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 7, p. 27-33, 2015; 11. Braz, A. B.; Kahn, H.; Contessotto, R.; Ulsen, C.; Tassinari, M. M. M. L. Caracterização tecnológica em amostras mineralizadas a estanho do estado de rondônia. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 53, 2014; 12. Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Angulo, S. C.; John, V. M.; Hawlitschek, H. Separabilidade de agregados reciclados provenientes de resíduos de construção e demolição de diferentes origens. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 341, 2014; 13. Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; França, R. R.; Hawlitschek, G.; Contessotto, R. Quantificação das fases constituintes de agregados reciclados por análise de imagens automatizada. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 44, 2014; 14. Nery, G. P.; Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Tassinari, M. M. M. L.; Uliana, D. Caracterização de ouro por análise de imagem automatizada por feixe de elétrons. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 3, 2014; 15. Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Hawlitschek, G.; Masini, E. A.; Angulo, S. C. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand. Waste Management (Elmsford), v. 33, p. 656-662, 2013; 16. Angulo, S. C.; John, V. M.; U., Carina; Kahn, H.; Mueller, A. Separação óptica do material cerâmico dos agregados mistos de resíduos de construção e demolição. Ambiente Construído (Online), v. 13, p. 61-73, 2013; 17. Hawlitschek, G.; Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Masini, E. A.; Westermann, J. Análise de Imagens por fluxo dinâmico de partículas. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. AnoXXX, p. 82-85, 2013; 18. Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Hawlitschek, G.; Masini, E.A.; Angulo, S.C.; John, V. M. Production of recycled sand from construction and demolition waste. Construction & Building Materials, v. 40, p. 1168-1173, 2013; 19. Kahn, H.; Ulsen, C.; Tassinari, M. M. M. L.; Uliana, D. Monazita associada a complexos alcalino-carbonatíticos. Revista ABM - Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração, v. 68, p. 125-129, 2012; 20. Shimizu, V. K.; Kahn, H.; Antoniassi, J. L.; Ulsen, C. Copper ore type definition from Sossego Mine using X-ray diffraction and cluster analysis technique. REM. Revista Escola de Minas (Impresso), v. 65, p. 561-566, 2012; 21. Aoki, F. U.; Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Pelli, B. P. S. Otimização de alimentação de planta em zonas de transição de mineralizações de níquel. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 291, p. 34-39, 2010; 22. Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Angulo, S. C.; John, V. M. Composição química de agregados mistos de resíduos de construção e demolição do Estado de São Paulo. REM. Revista Escola de Minas (Impresso), v. 63, p. 339-346, 2010; 23. Angulo, S. C.; Ulsen, C.; John, V. M.; Kahn, H.; Cincotto, M. A. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C&D waste recycled aggregates from São Paulo, Brazil. Waste Management (Elmsford), v. 29, p. 721-730, 2009; 24. Ulsen, C.; Espinhal, L. F. M. M.; Tachibana, I. K.; Colacioppo, J. A. S.; Pelli, B. P. S.; Beltrame, A. L. Viagem técnica à África do Sul. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 244, p. 94-97, 2005; 25. Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Angulo, S. C.; John, V. M. Caracterização tecnológica de resíduos de construção e demolição. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 242, p. 154-162, 2005.

Mauricio Guimaraes Bergerman: Current position: Professor at University of São Paulo; PhD: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 2010–2013; Master’s degree: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 2006–2009; Bachelor’s degree: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 1998–2003; Lattes curriculum link:http://lattes.cnpq.br/1750821215366560; Published papers: 1. Jose Neto, D.; Bergerman, M. G.; Young, A.; Petter, C. O. Pre-concentration potential evaluation for a silicate zinc ore by density and sensor-based sorting methods. REM - International Engineering Journal, v. 72, p. 335-343, 2019; 2. Bergerman, M. G.; Delboni, J. H. Development and Validation of a Simplified Laboratory Test to Design Vertical Stirred Mills. KONA Powder and Particle Journal, v. 37, p. 1-8, 2019; 3. Peres, L. M.; Massola, C. P.; Bergerman, Maurício Guimarães. Abrasiveness evaluation of pre-concentration of copper sulfide ore products Through Lcpc Test. Tecnologia Em Metalurgia, Materiais E Mineração, v. 15, p. 91-95, 2018; 4. Gonçalves, C. C.; Mendes, P. N.; Bergerman, M. G.; Souza, T. F.; Castro, C. E. V; Horta, D. G. Statistical evaluation of scrubbing and screening optimization in bauxite processing. Tecnologia Em Metalurgia, Materiais E Mineração (IMPRESSO), v. 14, p. 24-29, 2017; 5. Fonseca, R. A.; Olegario J., Francisco, C.; Bergerman, M. G. Evaluation of the rougher feed and concentrate size distributions from the salobo sulphide copper ore processing plant. Holos (Natal, online), V. 6, P. 85, 2017; 6. Fonseca, R. A.; Olegario J., Francisco, C.; Lino, H. F.; Bergerman, M. G. Technical evaluation of reagent dosing pumping systems in flotation circuits. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 6, p. 92, 2017; 7. Barbosa, F. A. M. ; Horta, D. G. ; Bergerman, M. G. Removal of iron-bearing minerals from gibbsitic bauxite by direct froth flotation. Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração (Impresso), v. 13, p. 106-112, 2016; 8. Oliveira, R.; Delboni J. H.; Bergerman, M. G. Performance analysis of the HRCTM HPGR in pilot plant. REM. Revista da Escola de Minas (Impresso), v. 69, p. 227-232, 2016; 9. Miranda, A.; Luiz, D.; Souza, M.; Oliveira, G.; Bergerman, M. G.; Delboni Junior, H. Moagem semi-autógena da usina do sossego: histórico dos 10 anos de operação e otimizações. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 7, p. 43, 2015; 10. Miranda, A.; Fonseca, R.; Olegario, F.; Souza, M.; Oliveira, G.; Bergerman, M. G.; Delboni Junior, H. Avaliação da granulometria de alimentação e dos produtos da etapa rougher de flotação da usina do sossego. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 7, p. 88, 2015; 11. Oliveira, M. F.; Silva, J. C.; Filho, T. M.; Bergerman, M.; Horta, D. G. Desempenho de coletores aniônicos de minerais portadores de ferro na concentração de feldspato por flotação. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 7, p. 94, 2015; 12. Bergerman, M. G.; Machado, L. C. R.; Miranda, A.; Fonseca, R.; Delboni Jr., H. Moagem fina de minério de cobre de alta eficiência energética. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 150-157, 2014; 13. Bergerman, M. G.; Tomaselli, B. Y.; Maciel, B. F.; Roveri, C.; Navarro, F. C. Redução do consumo de energia de circuitos de moagem com a utilização de pré-concentração de minerais sulfetados. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 3, p. 176-183, 2014; 14. Limaverde, M. S. V.; Bergerman, M. G.; Delboni Jr., H. Avaliação de diferentes técnicas de análise de tamanho de partículas para amostras do circuito de remoagem do Sossego. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 1, p. 66-73, 2014; 15. Bergerman, M. G.; Delboni Jr., H. Operação e otimização de moinhos semi-autógenos. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 297, p. 42-49, 2010; 16. Bergerman, M. G.; Delboni Jr., H.; Rosa, M. A. N. Estudo de variabilidade e otimização do circuito de moagem SAG da Usina do Sossego. REM. Revista Escola de Minas (Impresso), v. 62, p. 93-97, 2009; 17. Chaves, A. P.; Bergerman, M. G.; Abreu, C. A. V.; Bigogno, N. Concentration of bauxite fines via gravity concentration. REM. Revista Escola de Minas (Impresso), v. 62, p. 277-281, 2009; 18. Bergerman, M. G.; Chaves, A. P. Experiência de produção mais limpa na CBA. Caso da Companhia Brasileira de Alumínio, Mina de Itamarati de Minas, MG. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 231, p. 16-24, 2004; 19. Bergerman, M. G.; Grizzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, F. A.; Crispim, D.; Lamacita, D. Visita às minerações do Canadá. Brasil Mineral (São Paulo), v. 210, p. 34-37, 2002.

Daniela Gomes Horta: Current position: Professor at Federal University of Alfenas; Pos-doc: Mineral Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2017; PhD: Mineral Engineering, University of São Paulo, 2009-2013; Master’s degree: Chemistry, São Paulo State University, 2006-2008; Bachelor’s degree: Chemistry, São Paulo State University, 2002-2005; Lattes curriculum link:http://lattes.cnpq.br/4218339673249160; Published papers: 1. Horta, D. G.; Monte, M. B. M.; Leal Filho, L. S. Effect of dissolution kinetics on flotation response of calcite with oleate. Brazilian Journal Of Chemical Engineering (Online), v. 34, p. 1035-1042, 2017; 2. Goncalves, C. C.; Mendes, P. N.; Bergerman, M. G.; Souza, T. F.; Castro, C. E. V.; Horta, D. G. Statistical evaluation of scrubbing and screening optimization in bauxite processing. Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais E Mineração (impresso), v. 14, p. 24-29, 2017; 3. Horta, D. G.; Monte, M. B. M.; Leal Filho, L.S. The effect of dissolution kinetics on flotation response of apatite with sodium oleate. International Journal of Mineral Processing (Print), v. 146, p. 97-104, 2016; 4. Barbosa, F. M.; Bergerman, M. G.; Horta, D. G. Removal of iron-bearing minerals from gibbsitic bauxite by direct froth flotation. Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais E Mineração (Impresso), v. 13, p. 106-112, 2016; 5. Oliveira, M. F.; Silva, J. C.; Magalhaes, T.; Bergerman, M. G.; Horta, D. G. Desempenho de coletores aniônicos de minerais portadores de ferro na concentração de feldspato por flotação. Holos (Natal. Online), v. 7, p. 94-100, 2015; 6. Horta, D. G.; Beviláqua, D.; Acciari, H. A.; Garcia Júnior, O.; Benedetti, A. V. Optimization of the use of carbon paste electrodes (CPE) for electrochemical study of the chalcopyrite. Química Nova (Impresso), v. 32, p. 1734-1738, 2009; 7. Horta, D. G.; Acciari, H. A.; Beviláqua, D.; Benedetti, A. V.; Garcia Júnior, O. The Effect of Chloride Ions and A. Ferrooxidans on the Oxidative Dissolution of the Chalcopyrite Evaluated by Electrochemical Noise Analysis (ENA). Advanced Materials Research (Online), v. 71-73, p. 397-400, 2009; 8. Horta, D. G.; Beviláqua, D.; Acciari, H. A.; Garcia Júnior, O.; Benedetti, A. V. Electrochemical Noise Analysis of Chalcopyrite Carbon Paste Electrodes by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Advanced Materials Research (Online), v. 20-21, p. 83-86, 2007.

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Journal of Materials Research and Technology

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